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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Hesperiidae
Subfamilia: Pyrginae
Tribus: Carcharodini
Subtribus: Carcharodina
Genus: Spialia
Subgenera (2): Spialia – Platygnathia
Speciesː S. ali –S. carnea –S. diomus –S. doris –S. fetida –S. galba –S. geron –S. irida –S. lugens –S. mafa –S. orbifer –S. osthelderi –S. phlomidis –S. rosae –S. sertorius –S. spio –S. struvei –S. therapne
Name

Spialia Swinhoe, 1912: 99.

Type species: Hesperia galba (Fabricius), 1793ː 352.
Synonyms

Powellia Tutt, 1906: 218 (praeocc. Maskell, 1879 [Hemiptera]).
Type species: Papilio sao Hübner, [1800-1803] (invalid, replaced by Papilio sertorius Hoffmannsegg, 1804), by original designation.
Neospialia Koçak, 1989 (repl. Powellia Tutt, 1906).
Type species: Papilio sao Hübner, [1800-1803] (invalid, replaced by Papilio sertorius Johann Centurius Hoffmannsegg, 1804).

References

Evans, W.H. 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae: indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History) 1–212. Reference page.
Fabricius, J.C. 1793. Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta. Secundun classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Tomus III. Pars I. C. G. Proft, Hafniae, [vi] + 487 pp. BHL. Reference page.
Hemming, A. F., 1967. The generic names of the butterflies and their type species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 1967, Suppl. 9: 1-509.Reference page.
Hernández-Roldán, J.L., Dapporto, L., Dincă, V., Vicente, J.C., Hornett, E.A., Šíchová, J., Lukhtanov, V.A., Talavera, G. & Vila, R., 2016. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies. Molecular Ecology 25(17): 4267–4284. DOI: 10.1111/mec.13756 Paywall. Reference page.
Higgins, L.G. 1974. A new subspecies of Spialia phlomidis (Herrich-Schaffer) (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Journal of Entomology Series B, Taxonomy 43(1): 83–87. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.1974.tb00091.x Reference page.
Hübner, J. 1796–1838 (continued by Geyer, G.) Sammlung europaische Schmetterlinge. 1 Papiliones: 194+8pp, 207 plates, Augsburg. BHL text, plates. Reference page.
de Jong, R., 1974. Systematics and Evolution of the Palaearctic Spialia Species (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Tijdschrift voor entomologie 117(6)ː 225-271. Reference page.
de Jong, R. 1978. Monograph of the genus Spialia Charles Swinhoe (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 121: 23-146. Reference page.
Swinhoe, C. [1913]. In Moore, Lepidoptera Indica 10, (1912-1913) Hesperiidae, 364pp., pls. 757–835. Reference page.
Tutt, J.W. 1905–1906. A Natural History of the British Lepidoptera Vol 8, Butterflies (1): 479pp, 20 pls. London, Swan Sonnenschein & Co. BHL. Reference page.
Zhang, J., Brockmann, E., Cong, Q., Shen, J.H. & Grishin, N.V. 2020. A genomic perspective on the taxonomy of the subtribe Carcharodina (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Carcharodini). Zootaxa 4748(1): 182–194. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4748.1.10. Paywall. Reference page.

Spialia is a genus of skippers in the family Hesperiidae, which are mainly found in Africa and Asia. They are commonly called grizzled skippers or sandmen.

As a result of genomic research published in 2020, 3 species of Spialia were moved to the new genus Agyllia and 14 species were moved to the new genus Ernsta.[1]
Species

These species belong to the genus Spialia:[1][2][3]

Spialia ali Oberthür, 1881
Spialia carnea (Reverdin, 1927)
Spialia diomus (Hopffer, 1855) (common sandman)
Spialia doris (Walker, 1870) (desert grizzled skipper)
Spialia ferax (Wallengren, 1863) (ferax grizzled skipper)
Spialia fetida Zhdanko, 1992
Spialia galba (Fabricius, 1793) (indian skipper)
Spialia geron (Watson, 1893)
Spialia irida Zhdanko, 1993
Spialia lugens (Staudinger, 1886)
Spialia mafa (Trimen, 1870) (mafa sandman)
Spialia orbifer (Hübner, 1823) (orbed red-underwing skipper)
Spialia osthelderi (Pfeiffer, 1932)
Spialia phlomidis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1845) (persian skipper)
Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dinca, Vicente & Vila, 2016
Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) (red-underwing skipper)
Spialia spio (Linnaeus, 1764) (mountain sandman)
Spialia struvei (Püngeler, 1914)
Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) (corsican red-underwing skipper)

References

Zhang, Jing; Brockmann, Ernst; Cong, Qian; Shen, Jinhui; et al. (2020). "A genomic perspective on the taxonomy of the subtribe Carcharodina (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Carcharodini)". Zootaxa. 4748 (1). doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4748.1.10.
Spialia at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms

Hernández-Roldán, Juan L.; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C.; Hornett, Emily A.; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger (2016). "Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies". Molecular Ecology. 25 (17): 4267–84. doi:10.1111/mec.13756. hdl:10230/32118. PMID 27393640.

Natural History Museum Lepidoptera genus database
Woodhall, Steve (2005). Field Guide to Butterflies of South Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik. ISBN 978-1-86872-724-7.
Seitz, A. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 13: Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter. Plate XIII 75

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