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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamilia: Orchidoideae
Tribus: Cranichideae
Subtribus: Goodyerinae
Genus: Cheirostylis
Overview of species (57)

C. acuminata – C. barbata – C. bidentata – C. bipunctata – C. calcarata – C. celebensis – C. chinensis – C. clibborndyeri – C. cochinchinensis – C. cristata – C. dendrophila – C. divina – C. filipetala – C. flabellata – C. foliosa – C. glandulifera – C. glandulosa – C. goldschmidtiana – C. grandiflora – C. griffithii – C. gunnarii – C. jamesleungii – C. javanica – C. kabaenae – C. latipetala – C. lepida – C. liukiuensis – C. malipoensis – C. marmorifolia – C. merrillii – C. moniliformis – C. montana – C. monteiroi – C. nantouensis – C. notialis – C. nuda – C. octodactyla – C. orobanchoides – C. ovata – C. pabongensis – C. parvifolia – C. pingbianensis – C. pubescens – C. pusilla – C. raymundii – C. rubrifolius – C. serpens – C. sessanica – C. sherriffii – C. spathulata – C. tabiyahanensis – C. takeoi – C. thailandica – C. thanmoiensis – C. tippica – C. tortilacinia – C. yunnanensis

Cheirostylis Blume, Bijdr.: 413 (1825)

Type species: Cheirostylis montana Blume, Bijdr.: 413 (1825)


Gymnochilus Blume, Coll. Orchid.: 107 (1859)
Arisanorchis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 4: 109 (1914)
Mariarisqueta Guinea, Ensayo Geobot. Guin. Continent. Espan.: 268 (1946)
Hayata Aver., Taiwania 54: 311 (2009)

Native distribution areas:

West Tropical Africa
Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierre Leone.
West-Central Tropical Africa
Burundi, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Islands, Rwanda, Zaïre.
Northeast Tropical Africa
East Tropical Africa
Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda.
South Tropical Africa
Southern Africa
KwaZulu-Natal, Swaziland.
Western Indian Ocean
Comoros, Mauritius, Madagascar, Réunion.
China South-Central, Hainan, China Southeast.
Eastern Asia
Japan, Nansei-shoto, Taiwan.
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, West Himalaya.
Andaman Islands, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.
Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Sulawesi.
New Guinea.
New South Wales, Queensland.
Southwestern Pacific
New Caledonia, Vanuatu.
Northwestern Pacific
Caroline Islands.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Blume, C.L. 1825. Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië 8: 413.
Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (eds.) 2003. Genera Orchidacearum Volume 3: Orchidoideae (Part two); page 77 ff., Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850711-9


Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2021. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Cheirostylis. Accessed: 2021 May 1.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Cheirostylis in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 May 1. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Cheirostylis in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 May 1. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Cheirostylis. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2021 May 1. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Cheirostylis. Published online. Accessed: 1 May 2021. 2021. Cheirostylis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 1 May 2021.

Vernacular names

перем коми: Хейростилис
коми: Хейростилис
кырык мары: Хейростилис
удмурт: Хейростилис
中文: 叉柱兰属

Cheirostylis, commonly known as fleshy jewel orchids[2] or velvet orchids,[3] is a genus of about sixty species of flowering plants in the orchid family Orchidaceae. Plants in this genus are terrestrial herbs with a caterpillar-like rhizome and a loose rosette of leaves. Small, white, hairy flowers develop as the leaves wither. They are found in tropical Africa, southern Asia, Southeast Asia, Malesia, New Guinea and Australia.


Orchids in the genus Cheirostylis are terrestrial, perennial, deciduous, sympodial herbs with a creeping, caterpillar-like, above-ground rhizome anchored to the ground by fine white root hairs. The leaves are thinly textured and arranged in a loose rosette with a short petiole but are usually withered by flowering time. The flowers are resupinate and usually small, white and hairy with the dorsal sepal and lateral sepals fused for about half their length. The petals are free from each other but are narrower than the sepals. The tip of the labellum has two lobes and a narrow base forming a shallow depression containing two calli.[2][3][4][5][6]
Taxonomy and naming

The genus Cheirostylis was first formally described in 1825 by Carl Ludwig Blume and the description was published in Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië.[1][7]

The first species of Cheirostylis described by Blume was C. montana, making it the type species.[8]

Cheirostylis orchids occur in tropical Africa through tropical Asia from Japan to New Guinea and some Pacific Islands. Seventeen species, eight of which are endemic occur in China and two species are endemic to Australia.[2][3][5]
List of species

The following is a list of species recognised by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as at August 2018:[1]

Cheirostylis acuminata Blume (2016)
Cheirostylis bidentata J.J.Sm. (1928)
Cheirostylis bipunctata Aver. (1996)
Cheirostylis calcarata X.H.Jin & S.C.Chen (2007)
Cheirostylis celebensis P.O'Byrne & J.J.Verm. (2006)
Cheirostylis chinensis Rolfe (1895)
Cheirostylis clibborndyeri S.Y.Hu & Baretto (1976)
Cheirostylis cochinchinensis Blume (1859)
Cheirostylis cristata Aver. (2010)
Cheirostylis dendrophila Schltr. (1911)
Cheirostylis divina (Guinea) Summerh. (1953)
Cheirostylis filipetala Aver. (2003)
Cheirostylis flabellata (A.Rich.) Wight (1851)
Cheirostylis foliosa Aver. (2007)
Cheirostylis glandulifera Aver. (2014)
Cheirostylis glandulosa (Aver.) J.M.H.Shaw (2015)
Cheirostylis goldschmidtiana Schltr. (1915)
Cheirostylis grandiflora Blume (1859)
Cheirostylis griffithii Lindl. (1857)
Cheirostylis gunnarii A.N.Rao (1998)
Cheirostylis jamesleungii S.Y.Hu & Barretto (1976)
Cheirostylis javanica J.J.Sm. (1913)
Cheirostylis kabaenae Ormerod (2008)
Cheirostylis latipetala Aver. & Averyanova (2006)
Cheirostylis lepida (Rchb.f.) Rolfe (1897)
Cheirostylis liukiuensis Masam. (1930)
Cheirostylis malipoensis X.H.Jin & S.C.Chen (2007)
Cheirostylis marmorifolia Aver. (2000)
Cheirostylis merrillii (Ames & Quisumb.) Ormerod (1998)
Cheirostylis moniliformis (Griff.) Seidenf. (1978)
Cheirostylis montana Blume (1825)
Cheirostylis monteiroi S.Y.Hu & Barretto (1976)
Cheirostylis nantouensis T.P.Lin (2017)
Cheirostylis notialis D.L.Jones (1997) – southern fleshy jewel orchid
Cheirostylis nuda (Thouars) Ormerod (2002)
Cheirostylis octodactyla Ames (1907)
Cheirostylis orobanchoides (F.Muell.) D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem. (1998)
Cheirostylis ovata (F.M.Bailey) Schltr. (1911) – banded fleshy jewel orchid
Cheirostylis pabongensis Lucksom (1997)
Cheirostylis parvifolia Lindl. (1839)
Cheirostylis pingbianensis K.Y.Lang (1996)
Cheirostylis pubescens E.C.Parish & Rchb.f. (1874)
Cheirostylis pusilla Lindl. (1840)
Cheirostylis raymundii Schltr. (1915)
Cheirostylis rubrifolius T.P.Lin & W.M.Lin (2009)
Cheirostylis serpens Aver. (2005)
Cheirostylis sessanica A.N.Rao (1988)
Cheirostylis sherriffii N.Pearce & P.J.Cribb (1999)
Cheirostylis spathulata J.J.Sm. (1927)
Cheirostylis tabiyahanensis (Hayata) N.Pearce & P.J.Cribb (1999)
Cheirostylis takeoi (Hayata) Schltr. (1919)
Cheirostylis thailandica Seidenf. (1978)
Cheirostylis thanmoiensis (Gagnep.) Ormerod (2002)
Cheirostylis tippica A.N.Rao (1991)
Cheirostylis tortilacinia C.S.Leou (1990)
Cheirostylis yunnanensis Rolfe (1896)


"Cheirostylis". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Jones, David L. (2006). A complete guide to native orchids of Australia including the island territories. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: New Holland. pp. 346–347. ISBN 1877069124.
D.L.Jones; T.Hopley; S.M.Duffy (2010). "Cheirostylis". Australian Tropical Rainforest Orchids. Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research (CANBR), Australian Government. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
"Genus Cheirostylis". Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
"Cheirostylis". Flora of China. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
Jones, David L. (1997). "A taxonomic review of Cheirostylis (Orchidaceae) in Australia" (PDF). Muelleria. 10: 76. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
Blume, Carl Ludwig (1825). Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië. Batavia. p. 413. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
"Cheirostylis montana". APNI. Retrieved 30 August 2018.

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