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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Myrtales
Familiae: Alzateaceae - Combretaceae - Crypteroniaceae - Lythraceae - MelastomataceaeMyrtaceaeOnagraceaePenaeaceaeVochysiaceae

Name

Myrtales Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl, Přir. Rostlin: 233. (1820)
Synonyms

Homotypic
Myrtanae Takht., Sist. Filog. Cvetk. Rast.: 295. (1967)
Myrtopsida Bartl., Ord. Nat. Pl.: 225, 326. (1830)
Heterotypic
Melastomatineae J. Presl Nowočeská Bibl. [Wšobecný Rostl.] 7: 566. (1846)
Circaeales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 48. (1835)
Combretales R.Br. ex Bercht. & J. Presl, Přir. Rostlin: 234. (1820)
Epilobiales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 48. (1835)
Henslowiales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 14. (1835)
Lythrales Link, Handbuch 2: 47. (1829)
Melastomatales Berchtold & J. Presl ex Bercht. & J. Presl, Přir. Rostlin: 233. (1820)
Memecylales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 65. (1835)
Myrobalanales Link, Handbuch 2: 440. (1829)
Oenotherales Bromhead Edinburgh New Philos. J. 24: 409. (1838)
Onagrales Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl, Přir. Rostlin: 232. (1820)
Penaeales Lindl., Nix. Pl.: 15. (1833)
Trapales J. Presl, Nowočeská Bibl. [Wšobecný Rostl.] 7: 549. (1846)
Vochysiales Link, Handbuch 2: 60. (1829)
Oenotheropsida Brongn., Enum. Pl. Mus. Paris: xxx, 117. (1843)

References

Schönenberger, J. & Conti, E. 2003. Molecular phylogeny and floral evolution of Penaeaceae, Oliniaceae, Rhynchocalycaceae, and Alzateaceae (Myrtales). American Journal of Botany 90(2): 293–309. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.90.2.293 Full text PDF Reference page.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: آسيات
azərbaycanca: Mərsinçiçəklilər
беларуская: Міртакветныя
català: Mirtal
čeština: myrtotvaré
dansk: Myrte-ordenen
Deutsch: Myrtenartige
Esperanto: Mirtaloj
eesti: Mürdilaadsed
فارسی: موردسانان
עברית: הדסאים
hrvatski: Mirtolike
magyar: Mirtuszvirágúak
日本語: フトモモ目
한국어: 도금양목
lietuvių: Mirtiečiai
македонски: Миртовидни
polski: Mirtowce
русский: Миртоцветные
slovenčina: myrtotvaré
svenska: Myrtenordningen
తెలుగు: మిర్టేలిస్
ไทย: อันดับชมพู่
Türkçe: Mersinler
українська: Миртоцвіті
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Đào kim nương
中文: 桃金娘目

The Myrtales are an order of flowering plants placed as a sister to the eurosids II clade as of the publishing of the Eucalyptus grandis genome in June 2014.[2]

The APG III system of classification for angiosperms still places it within the eurosids. This finding is corroborated by the placement of the Myrtales in the Malvid clade by the One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative.[3] The following families are included as of APG III:[1]

Alzateaceae S. A. Graham
Combretaceae R. Br. (leadwood family)
Crypteroniaceae A. DC.
Lythraceae J. St.-Hil. (loosestrife and pomegranate family)
Melastomataceae Juss. (including Memecylaceae DC.)
Myrtaceae Juss. (myrtle family; including Heteropyxidaceae Engl. & Gilg, Psiloxylaceae Croizat)
Onagraceae Juss. (evening primrose and Fuchsia family)
Penaeaceae Sweet ex Guill. (including Oliniaceae Arn., Rhynchocalycaceae L. A. S. Johnson & B. G. Briggs)
Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil.

The Cronquist system gives essentially the same composition, except the Vochysiaceae are removed to the order Polygalales, and the Thymelaeaceae are included. The families Sonneratiaceae, Trapaceae, and Punicaceae are removed from the Lythraceae. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Myrtales were in the superorder Myrtiflorae (also called Myrtanae). The APG III system agrees with the older Cronquist circumscriptions of treating Psiloxylaceae and Heteropyxidaceae within Myrtaceae, and Memecyclaceae within Melastomataceae.

Ellagitannins are reported in dicotyledoneous angiospermes, and notably in species in the order Myrtales.[4]

Origins

Myrtales is dated to have begun 89–99 million years ago (mya) in Australasia. There is some contention as to that date however, which was obtained using nuclear DNA. When looking at chloroplast DNA, the myrtales ancestor is instead considered to have evolved in the mid-Cretaceous period (100 mya) in Southeast Africa, rather than in Australasia.[5] Although the APG system classifies myrtales as within the eurosids, the recently published genome of Eucalyptus grandis places the order myrtales as a sister to the eurosids rather than inside them. The discrepancy is thought to have arisen due to the difference between using numerous taxa versus using various genes for constructing a phylogeny.[2]
References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x
Myburg AA, Grattapaglia D, Tuskan GA, Hellsten U, Hayes RD, Grimwood J, et al. (June 2014). "The genome of Eucalyptus grandis" (PDF). Nature. 510 (7505): 356–62. Bibcode:2014Natur.510..356M. doi:10.1038/nature13308. PMID 24919147. S2CID 4392576.
Leebens-Mack JH, Barker MS, Carpenter EJ, Deyholos MK, Gitzendanner MA, Graham SW, et al. (One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative) (October 2019). "One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants". Nature. 574 (7780): 679–685. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1693-2. PMC 6872490. PMID 31645766.
Yoshida T, Amakura Y, Yoshimura M (January 2010). "Structural features and biological properties of ellagitannins in some plant families of the order Myrtales". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 11 (1): 79–106. doi:10.3390/ijms11010079. PMC 2820991. PMID 20162003.

Grattapaglia D, Vaillancourt RE, Shepherd M, Thumma BR, Foley W, Külheim C, Potts BM, Myburg AA (June 2012). "Progress in Myrtaceae genetics and genomics: Eucalyptus as the pivotal genus". Tree Genetics & Genomes. 8 (3): 463–508. doi:10.1007/s11295-012-0491-x.

Further reading

Conti E, Eriksson T, Schönenberger J, Sytsma KJ, Baum DA (October 2002). "Early Tertiary out-of-India dispersal of Crypteroniaceae: evidence from phylogeny and molecular dating". Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 56 (10): 1931–42. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb00119.x. PMID 12449480.
Schönenberger J, Conti E (February 2003). "Molecular phylogeny and floral evolution of Penaeaceae, Oliniaceae, Rhynchocalycaceae, and Alzateaceae (Myrtales)". American Journal of Botany. 90 (2): 293–309. doi:10.3732/ajb.90.2.293. PMID 21659121.

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