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Araneus diadematus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Ordo: Araneae
Subordo: Opisthothelae
Infraordo: Araneomorphae
Taxon: Neocribellatae
Series: Entelegynae
Superfamilia: Araneoidea

Familia: Araneidae
Subfamilia: Araneinae
Tribus: Araneini
Genus: Araneus
Species: Araneus diadematus
Subspecies: A. d. islandicus – A. d. nemorosus – A. d. soror – A. d. stellatus

Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1758

Type locality: Sweden

Holotype: ♀, lost in NRM

Aranea diadema Linnaeus, 1758

Primary references

Clerck, C. 1758 [1757]. Aranei Svecici, descriptionibus et figuris æneis illustrati, ad genera subalterna redacti, speciebus ultra LX determinati (L. Salvii). Stockholm. Full book Reference page. [25, pl. 1, f. 4 (D♀)]


Levi, H. W. 1971. The diadematus group of the orb-weaver genus Araneus north of Mexico (Araneae: Araneidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 141: 131–179. [147, f. 34-41, 95, 184-186]
Platnick, N. I. 2008. The World Spider Catalog, version 9.0. American Museum of Natural History. [1]

Selected links


Vernacular names
беларуская: Крыжавік звычайны
čeština: Křižák obecný
dansk: Korsedderkop
Deutsch: Gartenkreuzspinne
English: European Garden Spider
español: Araña de jardín
suomi: Ristihämähäkki
français: Épeire diadème
עברית: עכביש צלב
magyar: Koronás keresztespók
íslenska: Krosskónguló
italiano: Ragno crociato
日本語: ニワオニグモ
Nederlands: Kruisspin
polski: Krzyżak ogrodowy
português: Aranha-de-jardim europeia
română: Păianjen cu cruce
русский: Крестовик обыкновенный
svenska: Korsspindel
Türkçe: Haçlı örümcek

The spider species Araneus diadematus is commonly called the European garden spider, cross orbweaver, diadem spider, orangie, cross spider, and crowned orb weaver. It is sometimes called the pumpkin spider,[2] although this name is also used for a different species, Araneus marmoreus.[3] It is an orb-weaver spider found in Europe, where it is native, and North America, where it was introduced.

A. diadematus has a holarctic distribution throughout Europe and across North America, from southern Canada to Mexico, and from British Columbia to Newfoundland.[4][5]
Size and markings
Female, orange-brown colour variant

Individual spiders' colourings can range from extremely light yellow to very dark grey, but all A. diadematus spiders have mottled white markings across the dorsal abdomen, with four or more segments forming a cross. The markings are formed in cells filled with guanine, which is a byproduct of protein metabolism.[6]

Adult females range in length from 6.5 to 20 mm (0.26 to 0.79 in), while males range from 5.5 to 13 mm (0.22 to 0.51 in).[7] Occasionally, the female will eat the male directly after mating. (See video below.)

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The legs of orb-weaver spiders are specialized for spinning orb webs. The webs are built by the larger females, which hang head down in the center of the web or remain hidden in nearby foliage, with one claw hooked to a signal line connected to the main orb, waiting for a disturbance to signal the arrival of prey. Prey is then quickly bitten and wrapped in silk to be stored for later consumption. The initial bite serves to paralyze the prey and minimize the danger of the spider herself being stung or bitten, and the enzymes thus injected serve to begin liquefaction of the prey's internal structures.

Alongside the use of the web to capture other prey, the spiders are also cannibals and prey on each other, but this only happens just before, during, or just after sexual activity. They attack based on their size, sexual experience, and hunger levels.

A. diadematus is a reclusive creature and only bites humans if cornered or otherwise provoked. It responds to a disturbance by vibrating rapidly in its web until it becomes a blur, a reaction that is assumed to confuse potential predators.[8]


"Taxon details Araneus diadematusS Clerck, 1757", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2023-01-19
Hawkes, Alison (31 October 2012), "Signs of the Season: Pumpkin spiders on the move", Bay Nature, retrieved 2017-11-12
"Species Araneus marmoreus - Marbled Orbweaver", BugGuide, retrieved 2017-11-12
Cross Orbweaver; at BugGuide online; retrieved April 2013
Cross Spider, Washington NatureMapping Project
Rainer F. Foelix (1992). Biologie der Spinnen [Biology of the Spiders] (in German). Stuttgart: Thieme. ISBN 978-3-13-575802-2.
Cross Orbweaver, Penn State Entomology
Farr-Cox, Francis; Oxford, Geoff & Smith, Helen (2018). Factsheet 4 Garden spider (Araneus diadematus). British Arachnological Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-02-07. Retrieved 2020-02-07.


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