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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Ordo: Araneae
Subordo: Opisthothelae
Infraordines (2): Araneomorphae - Mygalomorphae
Overview of families (108)

Extant groups: Actinopodidae - Agelenidae - Amaurobiidae - Ammoxenidae - Amphinectidae - Anapidae - Antrodiaetidae - Araneidae - Archaeidae - Atypidae - Austrochilidae - Barychelidae - Caponiidae - Chummidae - Cithaeronidae - Clubionidae - Corinnidae - Ctenidae - Ctenizidae - Cyatholipidae - Cybaeidae - Cycloctenidae - Cyrtaucheniidae - Deinopidae - Desidae - Dictynidae - Diguetidae - Dipluridae - Drymusidae - Dysderidae - Eresidae - Euctenizidae - Filistatidae - Gallieniellidae - Gnaphosidae - Gradungulidae - Hahniidae - Hersiliidae - Hexathelidae - Holarchaeidae - Homalonychidae - Huttoniidae - Hypochilidae - Idiopidae - Lamponidae - Leptonetidae - Linyphiidae - Liocranidae - Lycosidae - Malkaridae - Mecicobothriidae - Mecysmaucheniidae - Microstigmatidae - Migidae - Mimetidae - Miturgidae - Mysmenidae - Nemesiidae - Nephilidae - Nesticidae - Nicodamidae - Ochyroceratidae - Oecobiidae - Oonopidae - Orsolobidae - Oxyopidae - Palpimanidae - Pararchaeidae - Paratropididae - Penestomidae - Periegopidae - Philodromidae - Pholcidae - Phyxelididae - Pimoidae - Pisauridae - Plectreuridae - Prodidomidae - Psechridae - Salticidae - Scytodidae - Segestriidae - Selenopidae - Senoculidae - Sicariidae - Sinopimoidae - Sparassidae - Stenochilidae - Stiphidiidae - Symphytognathidae - Synaphridae - Synotaxidae - Telemidae - Tengellidae - Tetrablemmidae - Tetragnathidae - Theraphosidae - Theridiidae - Theridiosomatidae - Thomisidae - Titanoecidae - Trechaleidae - Trochanteriidae - Trogloraptoridae - Uloboridae - Zodariidae - Zorocratidae - Zoropsidae

Fossil groups:

Opisthothelae Pocock, 1892

Pocock, R.I. 1892. Supplementary notes on the Arachnida and Myriopoda of the Mergui Archipelago: with descriptions of some new species from Siam and Malaysia. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 24: 316-326. Reference page.

Vernacular names
Nederlands: Moderne spinnen
中文: 中纺亚目

Opisthothelae is a suborder of spiders within the order Araneae, containing Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, but excluding Mesothelae. The Opisthothelae are sometimes presented as an unranked clade[2][3] and sometimes as a suborder of Araneae.[2] In the latter case, Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae are treated as infraorders.






The creation of this taxon has been justified by the need to distinguish these spiders from the Mesothelae, which display more primitive characteristics. The characteristics that distinguish between the Mesothelae and Opisthothelae are:

Mesothelae have a segmented abdomen with tergite plates, whereas Opisthothelae have fused abdominal segments and lack tergite plates[4]
The almost total absence of ganglia in the abdomen of Opisthothelae
The almost median position of the spinnerets in the Mesothelae compared with the hindmost position of those of the Opistothelae[4]


Containing all extant species of spider, except for the more primitive Mesothelae, Opisthothelae is an incredibly diverse clade. Mygalomorphae contains tarantulas and similar species, which tend to have stout bodies and legs. Araneomorphae are more highly evolved, and often have a smaller body and slender legs.[4]

Mygalomorphae have two pairs of book lungs, and have chelicerae that move vertically, allowing the spider to grasp its prey from above and below. Araneomorphae typically have one pair of book lungs, and chelicerae which move horizontally, allowing a firmer grip.[4]

Lampshade spiders (family Hypochilidae) show some characteristics of Araneomorphae despite being mygalomorphs, and have fangs that can move diagonally.[5] Distinguishing araneomorphs and mygalomorphs on first inspection is difficult unless the specimens are large enough to permit immediate examination of the fangs, although their differences in behavior can provide help for identification in the wild. [6]

Dunlop, Jason A. & Penney, David (2011). "Order Araneae Clerck, 1757" (PDF). In Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.). Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa. Auckland, New Zealand: Magnolia Press. ISBN 978-1-86977-850-7. Retrieved 2015-10-31.
Scientific name: Opisthothelae in Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Access date: 8 December 2010
Coddington, J.A. (2005). "Phylogeny and Classification of Spiders". In Ubick, D.; Paquin, P.; Cushing, P.E.; Roth, V. (eds.). Spiders of North America: an identification manual (PDF). American Arachnological Society. pp. 18–24. ISBN 0-9771439-0-2. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
Singh, Rajendra; Singh, Garima (2020). "DIVERSITY OF MYGALOMORPH SPIDERS (ARANAE: OPISTHOTHELAE) IN INDIA". International Journal of Biological Innovations. 02 (02): 178–201. doi:10.46505/ijbi.2020.2215. ISSN 2582-1032.
Brunetta, Leslie; Craig, Catherine L. (2010). Spider Silk. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Owen, Martyn (7 March 2018). "A Glimpse at Spider Evolution and Phylogeny". BiOME ECOLOGY.


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