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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Ordo: Araneae
Subordo: Opisthothelae
Infraordo: Araneomorphae
Taxon: Neocribellatae
Series: Entelegynae
Superfamilia: Araneoidea

Familia: Theridiosomatidae
Subfamiliae: Epeirotypinae – Luangnaminae – OgulniinaePlatoninaeTheridiosomatinae
Genera incertae sedis: Coddingtonia – Parogulnius
Overview of genera

Sinoalaria – Andasta – Baalzebub – Chthonopes – Chthonos – Coddingtonia – Epeirotypus – Epilineutes – Karstia – Luangnam – Menglunia – Naatlo – Ogulnius – Parogulnius – Plato – Sennin – Sinoalaria – Theridiosoma – Wendilgarda – Zoma – †Eoepeirotypus – †Eotheridiosoma – †Hypotheridiosoma – †Leviunguis – †Palaeoepeirotypus – †Spinitheridiosoma – †Umerosoma

Theridiosomatidae Simon, 1881

Coddington, J.A. 1986: The genera of the spider family Theridiosomatidae. Smithsonian contributions to zoology, 422: 1–96. PDF
Miller, J.; Griswold, C.; Yin, C.M. 2009: The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae: Araneoidea): systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers. ZooKeys, 11: 9–195. Abstract PDF
Paquin, P.; Vink, C.J.; Dupérré, N. 2010: Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key & species list. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, New Zealand. ISBN 9780478347050
Saaristo, M.I. 1996: Theridiosomatid spiders of the granitic islands of Seychelles (Araneae, Theridiosomatidae). Phelsuma, 4: 48–52.
Suzuki, Y., Hiramatsu, T. & Tatsuta, H. 2022. Two new species and a new genus of ray spiders (Araneae, Theridiosomatidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, southwest Japan, with notes on their natural history. ZooKeys 1109: 67–101. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1109.83807. Open access. Reference page.
Zhao, Q.Y. & Li, S.Q. 2012: Eleven new species of theridiosomatid spiders from southern China (Araneae, Theridiosomatidae). ZooKeys 255: 1-48. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.255.3272 Reference page.


Platnick, N. I. 2009. The World Spider Catalog, version 9.5. American Museum of Natural History. [1]

Vernacular names
English: Ray spiders
日本語: カラカラグモ科
한국어: 알망거미과
中文: 球体蛛科

Theridiosomatidae, commonly known as Ray Spiders, are a family of Arachnid first described by Eugène Simon in 1881.[2] The family includes 137 species divided between 20 genus.[1] They are most recognizable for their construction of cone-shaped webs.[3]

Ray Spiders are m a generally less than 4mm.

As of April 2023, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[1]

Andasta Simon, 1895 – Seychelles, Malaysia, Sri Lanka
Baalzebub Coddington, 1986 – Central America, Brazil, Australia, China
Chthonopes Wunderlich, 2011 – Laos
Chthonos Coddington, 1986 – Ecuador, Brazil, Peru
Coddingtonia Miller, Griswold & Yin, 2009 – Malaysia, Laos
Cuacuba Prete, Cizauskas & Brescovit, 2018
Epeirotypus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 – Mexico, Costa Rica
Epilineutes Coddington, 1986 – Mexico, Brazil
Karstia Chen, 2010 – China
Menglunia Zhao & Li, 2012 – China
Naatlo Coddington, 1986 – Central America, South America, Trinidad and Tobago
Ogulnius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882 – South America, Caribbean, Panama, Asia
Parogulnius Archer, 1953 – United States
Plato Coddington, 1986 – South America, Trinidad
Sennin Suzuki, Hiramatsu & Tatsuta, 2022 – Japan
Sinoalaria Zhao & Li, 2014 – China
Tagalogonia Labarque & Griswold, 2014 – Philippines
Theridiosoma O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879 – South America, Africa, Oceania, North America, Asia, Central America, Jamaica
Wendilgarda Keyserling, 1886 – Asia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Central America, Brazil, Mexico, Caribbean
Zoma Saaristo, 1996 – China, Seychelles

Fossil species

†Eoepeirotypus Wunderlich 2004 Baltic amber, Eocene
†Eotheridiosoma Wunderlich 2004 Bitterfeld amber, Baltic amber, Eocene
†Palaeoepeirotypus Wunderlich 1988 Dominican amber, Miocene
†Umerosoma Wunderlich 2004 Baltic amber, Eocene
†"Baalzebub" mesozoicum Penney 2014 - Vendée amber, France, Turonian[4] later considered to be stem-theridiosomatid[5]

See also

List of Theridiosomatidae species


"Family: Theridiosomatidae Simon, 1881". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2023-04-25.
Simon, E. (1881). Les arachnides de France. Tome cinquième, première partie.
Kaston, B.J. (1972). How to Know the Spiders. Pictured key nature series (3rd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Wm C. Brown Company Publishers. ISBN 9780697048981. OCLC 668250654.
"A fossil ray spider (Araneae: Theridiosomatidae) in Cretaceous amber from Vendée, France". Paleontological Contributions. 2014-12-01. doi:10.17161/pc.1808.15982. ISSN 1946-0279.
Magalhaes, Ivan L. F.; Azevedo, Guilherme H. F.; Michalik, Peter; Ramírez, Martín J. (February 2020). "The fossil record of spiders revisited: implications for calibrating trees and evidence for a major faunal turnover since the Mesozoic". Biological Reviews. 95 (1): 184–217. doi:10.1111/brv.12559. ISSN 1464-7931. PMID 31713947. S2CID 207937170.


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