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Eris militaris (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Ordo: Araneae
Subordo: Opisthothelae
Infraordo: Araneomorphae
Taxon: Neocribellatae
Series: Entelegynae
Sectio: Dionycha
Superfamilia: Salticoidea

Familia: Salticidae
Subfamilia: Dendryphantinae
Genus: Eris
Species: Eris militaris

Eris militaris (Hentz, 1845)

Attus militaris Hentz 1845: 201 (original combination)
Eris militaris (Hentz): Maddison, 1986: 141
Plexippus albovittatus Koch 1846: 11
Eris aurigera Koch 1846: 18
Euophrys humilis Koch 1846: 217
Icius albovittatus Keyserling 1884: 502
Icius moestus Banks 1892: 77
Dendryphantes marginatus Simon 1901: 624
Dendryphantes louisianus Chamberlin 1924: 34
Phidippus molinor Chamberlin 1925: 133

Primary references
Additional references
Maddison, W.P. 1986. Distinguishing the jumping spiders Eris militaris and Eris flava in North America (Araneae: Salticidae). Psyche, Cambridge 93: 141-149. BHL. Reference page

Eris militaris, known commonly as the bronze jumper or bronze lake jumper, is a species of jumping spider, belonging to the Salticidae family.[1] It is found in the United States and Canada within both suburban and rural areas.[1][2][3][4][5] The male and female of this species can be differentiated from their size or by the coloration on their cephalothorax and abdomen. The females have a lighter cephalothorax a slightly darker abdomen with white spots.[1] They are active in the autumn and winter season and can be found in sheltered areas within vegetation.[1][6] They can also be found living within apple orchards, where insecticides may be present, which can potentially effect or alter their personality and behavior.[7][8][9] Their diet consists of small insects, almost anything they can hold.[7][10]

The cephalothorax is one physical characteristic that shows differences between the male and females appearances. The female's cephalothorax are lighter in color compared to the male's, with a darker cephalothorax. The females abdomen are a bit darker with multiple white spots located dorsally. Males have a lighter abdomen and a darker cephalothorax, each with white bands along the sides. These white bands are absent on the females cephalothorax but present on their abdomen. On the males, the fang-like features, known as chelicerae, are long and located at the front of their cephalothorax.[1]

The length of males ranges from 4.7 to 6.7 millimeters, while the females can span from 6 to 8 millimeters in length.[1]

From the autumn to winter season, they can be found together in groups and beneath surfaces, such as dead wood. In locations like this, they are easily camouflaged due to their bronze, tan, brown coloration.[1]

After consuming prey, they groom themselves. Often grooming their chelicerae and rubbing them on their pedipalps. Grooming also appears during periods of rest, such as in a hidden spot within vegetation or within its shelter.[6]

Male Eris militaris participate in a dance in an attempt to win over a potential mate. This dance consists of the male lifting its forelegs outward and occasionally stepping side to side while its forelegs move consistently.[6]

Eris militaris can be found within the United States and Canada. They're commonly found in autumn walking inside or outside of buildings.[1] They can be found in hidden areas, such as blackberry bushes, where the leaves overlap and create small shelters.[6]

Jumping spider diets consist of small insects such as grasshoppers, moths, flies, or other spiders. They can eat almost anything that their chelicerae can hold. Other prey includes fruit flies, bees, wasps, crickets, worms, butterflies, or leafhoppers.[6][7][10]
Insecticide effects

Similar to how humans personalities can shift due to chemicals, spiders personalities can too. A hazardous but not quite lethal amount of a leftover insecticide, such as in apple orchards, can change individual spiders' personalities and alter behavior once exposed. Insecticide effects on behavior include spatial memory decreasing and their learning abilities decreasing. A reason for insecticides affecting bronze jumper behavior may be due to less food in locations with insecticide exposure. Despite its negative effects on some species, insecticides are still commonly used in agriculture.[7][8]

Drugs and insecticides show similarities, with both attacking the nervous system and having the ability to change behavior or lead to death when ingested in lethal amounts. The same way drugs do, common insecticides can affect web building.[8][9] Males and females of this species respond differently when exposed to insecticides. Males can be seen to be more affected when searching around their environment but still able to capture their prey. Females strength in the ability to capture prey decreases.[7][8]

Bronze jumpers, and other spiders, play important roles for regulation of pests in these agricultural locations. With insecticides in these areas, their ability to catch prey is affected, thereby affecting pest regulation in ecosystems.[7][8]

Jacobs, Steve (December 11, 2018). "Bronze Jumper". PennState Extension. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
"Eris militaris Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
"Eris militaris". GBIF. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
"Eris militaris". NMBE World Spider Catalog. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
"Eris militaris species Information". Retrieved 2019-09-23.
Hill, David (August 15, 2008). "The behavior of Eris militaris (Araneae: Salticidae)" (PDF). PECKHAMIA. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
Royauté, Raphaël (January 29, 2015). "Under the influence: sublethal exposure to an insecticide affects personality expression in a jumping spider". Functional Ecology. 29 (7): 962–970. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12413 – via WILEY.
Buddle, Chris (2015-02-18). "Under the influence: how insecticides affect jumping spider personalities (Part 2)". Arthropod Ecology. Retrieved 2022-10-29.
Samu, Vollrath, F.,F. (February 1992). "Spider orb web as bioassay for pesticide side effects". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 62 (2): 117–124. doi:10.1111/j.1570-7458.1992.tb00650.x. S2CID 84460287 – via WILEY.
Allred, Brandi (2021-12-15). "What Do Jumping Spiders Eat?". AZ Animals. Retrieved 2022-11-14.


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