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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Auchenorrhyncha
Infraordines: Cicadomorpha - Fulgoromorpha


Auchenorrhyncha Duméril, 1806
Vernacular names
English: Cicadas, Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
français: Auchénorrhynques
magyar: Kabócák
日本語: 頚吻亜目 (けいふんあもく)

Duméril, A.M.C. 1806. Zoologie analytique, ou, Méthode naturelle de classification des animaux : rendue plus facile a l'aide de tableaux synoptiques. Allais libraire (Paris) 344 pp. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.44835 Reference page.
Campbell, B.C., J.D. Steffen-Campbell, and R.J. Gill. 1994: Evolutionary origin of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Insect Molecular Biology, 3: 73–88.
Larivière, M.-C.; Fletcher, M.J.; Larochelle, A. 2010: Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue. Fauna of New Zealand, (63) ISBN 978-0-478-34720-3 (print), ISBN 978-0-478-34721-0 (online)
Sorensen, J.T., B.C. Campbell, R.J. Gill and J.D. Steffen-Campbell. 1995: Non-monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha ("Homoptera"), based upon 18S rDNA phylogeny: eco-evolutionary and cladistic implications within pre-heteropterodea Hemiptera (s.l.) and a proposal for new monophyletic suborders. Pan-Pacific Entomologist: 71 (1): 31–60.
von Dohlen, C.D. and N.A. Moran. 1995. Molecular phylogeny of the Homoptera: a paraphyletic taxon. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 41: 211–223.

Additional references

Kuznetsova, V.G. & Aguin-Pombo, D. 2015. Comparative cytogenetics of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera, Homoptera): a review. Zookeys 538: 63–93. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.538.6724 Full article Reference page.
Mozaffarian, F. 2017. Auchenorrhyncha types (Hemiptera) deposited in Hayk Mirzayans Insect Museum. Zootaxa 4294(5): 559–572. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4294.5.5. Reference page.
Mozaffarian, F. 2018. An Identification key to the species of Auchenorrhyncha of Iranian fauna recorded as pests in orchards and a review on the pest status of the species. Zootaxa 4420(4): 475–501. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4420.4.2 Paywall Reference page.

The Auchenorrhyncha suborder of the Hemiptera contains most of the familiar members of what was called the "Homoptera" – groups such as cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, and spittlebugs. The aphids and scale insects are the other well-known "Homoptera", and they are in the suborder Sternorrhyncha.

Distributed worldwide, all members of this group are plant-feeders, and many are vectors of viral and fungal diseases of plants.

It is also common for Auchenorrhyncha species to produce either audible sounds or substrate vibrations as a form of communication. Such calls range from vibrations inaudible to humans, to the calls of many species of cicadas that can be heard for hundreds of metres, at least. In season, they produce the most characteristic and ubiquitous noise of the bush.


The word auchenorrhyncha is from the Greek αὐχήν, 'neck, throat' and ῥύγχος, 'snout'.
Jikradia olitoria, nymph (Cicadellidae)
Aphrophora sp., nymph (Aphrophoridae)
Metcalfa pruinosa, nymphs (Flatidae)

Debate and uncertainty as to whether the Auchenorrhyncha is a monophyletic group or not is ongoing; some authors, believing it was not, split it into two suborders, the Clypeorrhyncha (= Cicadomorpha) and the Archaeorrhyncha (= Fulgoromorpha).[1] In the last 10 years, there has been evidence to support the monophyletic interpretation, and the most recent research indicates the Auchenorrhyncha are in fact a monophyletic lineage.[2] A classification of the Auchenorrhyncha is:[3]

Infraorder Cicadomorpha (Clypeorrhyncha, Clypeata)
Superfamily Cercopoidea (spittlebugs, froghoppers)
Superfamily Cicadoidea (cicadas)
Cicadidae (Platypediidae, Plautillidae, Tettigadidae, Tibicinidae)
Tettigarctidae (hairy cicadas)
Superfamily Membracoidea (Cicadelloidea)
Aetalionidae (Biturritiidae)
Cicadellidae (Eurymelidae, Hylicidae, Ledridae, Ulopidae, leafhoppers)
Membracidae (Nicomiidae, treehoppers)
Myerslopiidae (Cicadellidae, in part)
Infraorder Fulgoromorpha (Archaeorrhyncha, planthoppers)
Superfamily Fulgoroidea
Fulgoridae (lanternflies)


Sorensen J.T.; Campbell B.C.; Gill R.J.; Steffen-Campbell J.D. (1995). "Non-monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha ("Homoptera"), based upon 18S rDNA phylogeny: eco-evolutionary and cladistic implications with pre-Heteropteroidea Hemiptera (s.l.) and a proposal for new monophyletic suborders". Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 71 (1): 31–60.
Cryan J.R.; Urban J.M. (2012). "Higher-level phylogeny of the insect order Hemiptera: is Auchenorrhyncha really paraphyletic?". Systematic Entomology. 37 (1): 7–21. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2011.00611.x.
C. H. Dietrich in Resh, V. H. & Carde, R. T. (Eds.) 2003 Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press ISBN 0123741440.

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