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Alauda gulgula (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Alaudidae
Genus: Alauda
Species: Alauda gulgula
Subspecies: A. g. australis – A. g. coelivox – A. g. dharmakumarsinhjii – A. g. gulgula – A. g. herberti – A. g. inconspicua – A. g. inopinata – A. g. lhamarum – A. g. sala – A. g. vernayi – A. g. wattersi – A. g. weigoldi – A. g. wolfei

Alauda gulgula Franklin, 1831

Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1: 119.

Vernacular names
العربية: قبرة الحقول الشرقية
български: Индийска чучулига
বাংলা: ঝুঁটিভরত
brezhoneg: Alc'hweder ar reter
català: Alosa oriental
Cymraeg: Ehedydd dwyreiniol
Deutsch: Kleine Feldlerche
English: Oriental Skylark
español: Alondra oriental
فارسی: چکاوک آسمانی خاوری
suomi: Aasiankiuru
magyar: Indiai mezeipacsirta
қазақша: Үнді бозторғайы
മലയാളം: വാനമ്പാടിക്കിളി
नेपाली: ब्राह्मीचटी
Nederlands: Kleine veldleeuwerik
norsk: Orientlerke
русский: Малый полевой жаворонок
svenska: Mindre sånglärka
українська: Жайворонок індійський
Tiếng Việt: Sơn ca
中文: 小雲雀

The Oriental skylark (Alauda gulgula), also known as the small skylark, is a species of skylark found in the southern, central and eastern Palearctic . Like other skylarks, it is found in open grassland where it feeds on seeds and insects.

Taxonomy and systematics

The Oriental skylark was described by the English soldier and naturalist James Franklin in 1831 and given the binomial name Alauda gulgula.[2] The meaning of the specific epithet gulgula is uncertain but is perhaps a reference to the song as gula is Latin for "throat" or may be the color of the "gulgula" or a sweet which looks like doughnut made in many parts of Central India. [3]

Other alternate names for the Oriental skylark include eastern skylark, Indian skylark and lesser skylark.[4]

Thirteen subspecies are recognized:[5]

Kashmir skylark (A. g. lhamarum) or Kashmir small skylark - Meinertzhagen, R & Meinertzhagen, A, 1926: Found in the Pamir Mountains and western Himalayas
A. g. inopinata - Bianchi, 1905: Found on the Tibetan Plateau and north-western China
A. g. vernayi - Mayr, 1941: Found in the eastern Himalayas and south-western China
Western Oriental skylark (A. g. inconspicua) or Turkestan small skylark - Severtsov, 1873: Originally described as a separate species. Found from southern Kazakhstan to eastern Iran, Pakistan and north-western India
A. g. gulgula - Franklin, 1831: Found from north-central India to Sri Lanka and east to northern Indochina
A. g. dharmakumarsinhjii - Abdulali, 1976: Found in west-central India
A. g. australis - Brooks, WE, 1873: Originally described as a separate species. Found in south-western India
A. g. weigoldi - Hartert, 1922: Found in central and eastern China
A. g. coelivox - R. Swinhoe, 1859: Originally described as a separate species. Found in southern and south-eastern China, northern Vietnam
A. g. sala - R. Swinhoe, 1870: Originally described as a separate species. Found on Hainan Island (off south-eastern China)
A. g. herberti - Hartert, 1923: Found from central and eastern Thailand to southern Vietnam
A. g. wattersi - R. Swinhoe, 1871: Originally described as a separate species. Found in Taiwan
A. g. wolfei - Hachisuka, 1930: Found on Luzon (northern Philippines)


Oriental skylarks are about 16 cm (6.3 in) long. They have streaked, yellow-brown upper plumage, with white outer tail feathers and a short crest. Both sexes are similar.
in Bangladesh

Behaviour and ecology

These skylarks frequently rocket up into the sky, fluttering and singing before descending down to earth. Male Oriental skylarks may also hover in the air and sing, in order to attract a mate.

BirdLife International (2016). "Alauda gulgula". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22717424A94531143. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22717424A94531143.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
Franklin, James (1831). "Catalogue of birds (systematically arranged) which were collected on the Ganges between Calcutta and Benares, and in the Vindhyian hills between the latter place and Gurrah Mundela, on the Nerbudda". Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London (in English and Latin). Part 1 (10): 114–125 [119].
Jobling, J.A. (2018). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
"Alauda gulgula - Avibase". Retrieved 2016-12-10.
"IOC World Bird List 6.4". IOC World Bird List Datasets. doi:10.14344/

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