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Amazona aestiva

Amazona aestiva

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Psittaciformes
Familia: Psittacidae
Subfamilia: Psittacinae
Tribus: Androglossini
Genus: Amazona
Species: Amazona aestiva
Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758)
Original combination: Psittacus aestivus
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio Decima, Reformata. Tomus I. Holmiæ (Stockholm): impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. 824 pp. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542 BHL p. 101 BHL Reference page.
Vernacular names
brezhoneg: Amazon tal glas
català: Lloro de front blau
čeština: Amazoňan modročelý
Deutsch: Blaustirnamazone
English: Blue-fronted Amazon
español: Amazona sudamericana
suomi: Siniotsa-amatsoni
français: Amazone à front bleu
galego: Papagaio de fronte azul
magyar: Kékhomlokú amazon
italiano: Amazzone fronteblu
日本語: アオボウシインコ
lietuvių: Mėlynkaktė amazonė
polski: Amazonka niebieskoczelna
português: papagaio-verdadeiro, ajuruetê, papagaio-grego
русский: Синелобый амазон
svenska: Blåpannad amazon
Türkçe: Mavi kafalı papağan
українська: Синьолобий амазон

The turquoise-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), also called the turquoise-fronted parrot, the blue-fronted amazon and the blue-fronted parrot, is a South American species of amazon parrot and one of the most common amazon parrots kept in captivity as a pet or companion parrot. Its common name is derived from the distinctive turquoise marking on its head just above its beak.


The turquoise-fronted amazon was one of the many species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae.[2] Its specific epithet is the feminine form of the Latin adjective aestivus, "of the summer".[3] Two subspecies are recognized:[4]

A. a. aestiva (nominate) is found in eastern Brazil.[5] The leading edge of the wing ("shoulder") is red.
A. a. xanthopteryx occurs from northern and eastern Bolivia through adjacent parts of Brazil, to Paraguay and northern Argentina. The "shoulder" is partly or wholly yellow.[5] Generally with more yellow to the head than nominate.[6]

The taxon xanthopteryx has been treated as a separate species,[7] but the two subspecies interbreed freely where they come into contact.

Additionally, there are significant individual variations in both facial pattern and amount of yellow/red to the "shoulder". In one extreme, individuals with essentially no yellow on the head and entirely green "shoulders" are known from north-western Argentina.[8]

The turquoise-fronted amazon is a mainly green parrot about 38 cm (15 in) long. They have blue feathers on the forehead above the beak and yellow on the face and crown. Distribution of blue and yellow varies greatly among individuals. Unlike most other Amazona parrots, its beak is mostly black. There is no overt sexual dimorphism to the human eye, but analysis of the feathers using spectrometry, a method which allows the plumage to be seen as it would be by a parrot's tetrachromatic vision, shows clear differences between the plumage of the sexes.[9] Juveniles of parrots are duller and have dark irises.[10]
Distribution and habitat

The range of the turquoise-fronted amazon extends over eastern and northern Bolivia, eastern Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is found in forests (though generally avoids extensive humid forests such as the Amazon), woodland, savanna and palm groves.[6]

A small feral breeding population is also present in the greener regions of Stuttgart in Germany.[11] Although they have been observed in the wild in Puerto Rico, they are probably the result of escaped pets, and no reproduction has been recorded.[12]

The turquoise-fronted amazon nests in tree cavities. The oval eggs are white and measure around 38 × 30 mm. There are usually three to five in a clutch. The female incubates the eggs for about 27 days and the chicks leave the nest about 60 days after hatching.[10]

The status of this species is evaluated as being of least concern by BirdLife International. However, while it remains common throughout a significant part of its range, there is evidence of a population decline, and this species has been heavily traded: Since 1981 when it was listed on CITES Appendix II, 413,505 wild-caught individuals have been recorded in international trade (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, January 2005). It is regarded as a crop pest in parts of its native range.

Paradoxically, illegal trade may have contributed to expansions of the range of this parrot: It is becoming common in Rio de Janeiro, which is not a part of its historical range, something attributed to escaped caged birds.[13]

The turquoise-fronted amazon is commonly seen as a pet, both in South America and other parts of the world.[5] Their talking ability varies greatly from individual to individual, but some speak nearly as well as the yellow-headed amazon group (yellow-naped, Panama, yellow-crowned, double yellow-headed. They seem to have a proclivity for singing. They require interaction but also can play with toys contently for several hours at a time. Pets require plenty of toys, perches, and climbing room. As with some other birds, under no circumstances are turquoise-fronted amazons to eat avocado. Some individuals, particularly males, can be aggressive in spring, the mating season.

An extremely rare red (or chocolate raspberry) mutation of the species appeared in captivity in 2004, bred by the psittaculturist Howard Voren. The mutation results in yellow plumage being replaced by that of a red/pink hue and greens with a chocolate-brown, with the depth and intensity of color varying by location upon the body.[14]


BirdLife International (2019). "Amazona aestiva". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T22686332A154573813. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T22686332A154573813.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in Latin). Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii).
Simpson DP (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
Forshaw, p. 557
Forshaw, p. 558
Juniper, T., & M. Parr (1998). A Guide to the Parrots of the World. Pica Press, East Sussex. ISBN 1-873403-40-2
Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. Version (2008). A classification of the bird species of South America. Archived March 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed 2008-10-09.
Areta, J. I. (2007). A green-shouldered variant of the Blue-fronted Amazon Amazona aestiva from the Sierra de Santa Bárbara, north-west Argentina. Cotinga 27: 71–73.
Santos, Susana (2006). "Sexual Dichromatism in the Blue-fronted Amazon Parrot (Amazona aestiva) Revealed by Multiple-angle Spectrometry". Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 20 (1): 8–14. doi:10.1647/1082-6742(2006)20[8:SDITBA]2.0.CO;2.
Alderton, David (2003). The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Caged and Aviary Birds. London, England: Hermes House. p. 230. ISBN 1-84309-164-X.
as seem in the following photo
Falcón, Wilfredo; Tremblay, Raymond L. (2018). "From the cage to the wild: introductions of Psittaciformes to Puerto Rico". PeerJ. 6:e5669: e5669. doi:10.7717/peerj.5669. PMC 6214232. PMID 30397538. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
José Felipe Monteiro Pereira (2008). Aves e Pássaros Comuns do Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 68. Technical Books, Rio de Janeiro. 2008. ISBN 978-85-61368-00-5

Voren, Howard. "Red Color Mutation of the Blue-fronted Amazon". Retrieved 20 May 2011.

Cited text
Forshaw, Joseph M.; Cooper, William T. (1978). Parrots of the World (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Landsdowne Editions. ISBN 0-7018-0690-7.

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