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Amazona barbadensis

Amazona barbadensis (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Psittaciformes

Familia: Psittacidae
Subfamilia: Psittacinae
Tribus: Androglossini
Genus: Amazona
Species: Amazona barbadensis

Amazona barbadensis (Gmelin, 1788)

Psittacus barbadensis (protonym)
Psittacus carolinensis Scopoli, 1769
Psittacus ochropterus Gmelin, 1788
Amazona aestiva ochroptera (Gmelin, 1788)
Amazona ochroptera (Gmelin, 1788)
Androglossa ochroptera (Gmelin, 1788)
Androglossus ochropterus (Gmelin, 1788)
Chrysotis ochroptera (Gmelin, 1788)
Chrysotis ochropterus (Gmelin, 1788)
Amazona icterocephala Lesson, 1831
Chrysotis xanthocephalus Swainson, 1837
Chrysotis lactifrons Lawrence, 1878
Chrysotis canifrons Lawrence, 1883
Chrysotis rothschildi Hartert, 1892
Amazona barbadensis rothschildi (Hartert, 1892)
Amazona rothschildi (Hartert, 1892)


Gmelin, J.F. 1788. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. - pp. i–xii, 1–500. Lipsiae. (Beer). DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.545 p. 339 BHL Reference page.


IUCN: Amazona barbadensis (Vulnerable)
Listed animal in CITES Appendix I

Vernacular names
català: Lloro de front groc
Deutsch: Gelbschulteramazone
English: Yellow-shouldered Amazon
español: Amazona hombrogualda
suomi: Kultanaama-amatsoni
français: Amazone à épaulettes jaunes
magyar: Sárgavállú amazon
日本語: キボウシインコ
Nederlands: geelvleugelamazone
русский: Желтоплечий амазон
svenska: Gulskuldrad amazon
українська: Жовтоплечий амазон
中文: 黃肩亞馬遜鸚鵡

The yellow-shouldered amazon (Amazona barbadensis), also known as the yellow-shouldered parrot, is a parrot of the genus Amazona that is found in the arid areas of northern Venezuela, the Venezuelan islands of Margarita and La Blanquilla, and the island of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands). It has been extirpated from Aruba and introduced to Curaçao.


The yellow-shouldered amazon was described and illustrated in 1738 by the English naturalist Eleazar Albin in his A Natural History of Birds based on live specimen. Albin believed that the parrot had come from Barbados and used the English name, the "Barbadoes parrot".[3] Using Albin's account, both Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760 and John Latham in 1781 included a description of the parrot in their books on birds.[4][5] When in 1788 the German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin revised and expanded Carl Linnaeus's Systema Naturae, he included the yellow-shouldered amazon, coined the binomial name Psittacus barbadensis and cited Latham's work.[6] Gmelin specified the type locality as Barbados but this parrot species is not found on the island and Venezuela is the type locality.[7] The yellow-shouldered amazon is now placed with around thirty other species in the genus Amazona that was introduced by the French naturalist René Lesson in 1830.[8][9] The genus name is a Latinized version of the name Amazone given to these parrot in the 18th century by the Comte de Buffon, who believed they were native to Amazonian jungles. The specific barbadensis denotes Barbados.[10] The species is monotypic: no subspecies are recognised.[9]
Front view

The yellow-shouldered amazon is mainly green and about 33 cm long (~13 inches). It has a whitish forehead and lores, and a yellow crown, ocular region and - often - ear coverts and chin. The bare eye-ring is white. The thighs and the bend of the wing ("shoulder") are yellow, but both can be difficult to see. The throat, cheeks and belly often have a bluish tinge. As most members of the genus Amazona, it has broad dark blue tips to the remiges and a red wing-speculum.[11]

The yellow-shouldered amazon can be distinguished from the very similar orange-winged amazon by the latter's lack of yellow on its shoulders and blue colouration around the eyes. Another way of distinguishing it from other Amazona species is its somewhat higher pitched vocalizations.[12]
Distribution and habitat

A. barbadensis is endemic to northern Venezuela, Bonaire (which may have less than 400 birds[13]), and other islands in the area. On the Venezuelan island of Margarita, it is extirpated from the east side, which is heavily commercialized and a popular tourist destination, existing only on the Macanao Peninsula.[14] It was once found on Aruba, although it was locally extinct by 1947. An introduced population exists on Curaçao. Unlike other Amazona members, it is typically found in arid habitats, such as desert scrub and dry forests.[12][15][16]
Food and feeding

It feeds on fruits, seeds, and flowers, frequently consuming parts of cactus plants.[12][15] The parrot is able to survive with minimal water, getting a large amount of moisture from their diet. This is especially clear on La Blanquilla, a small island with no natural bodies of water. The cacti that they so often eat are filled with liquid, in both the stems and fruits, and this keeps them alive in their arid environment.[14]

The yellow-shouldered amazon typically nests in holes in trees, cliffs, or cacti, and lays 2-5 eggs.[15] Total clutch size and hatching success of this species on Margarita Island are among the highest documented for the genus Amazona, suggesting a high reproductive potential for the species [17] It is highly gregarious, and can sometimes roost in communally in tall trees, forming groups of as many as 700.[15] The population on Bonaire appears to breed slower than is typical for the species, bringing it in line with other members of the genus.[18]
Possible extinct subspecies from Aruba, A. b. canifrons

Declines in several main land populations have been extensively documented, there are believed to be 2,500–10,000 yellow-shouldered amazons in the wild.[19]

Due to ongoing habitat lost, small population size, limited range and overhunting for the pet trade, the yellow-shouldered amazon is evaluated as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[20] On La Blanquilla, the main issues are predation by feral cats and hunting by local fishermen and Naval personnel.[14] It is listed on Appendix I of CITES. Thanks to local surveillance by the Venezuelan NGO Provita, poaching has been significantly lowered in certain areas.[13]

The population on the Caribbean island of Margarita had been as low as 750 birds in 1989, but thanks to conservation efforts, there were an estimated 2,400 by 2002,[21] although different estimates describe just 2,000 in 2015.[15] These efforts involved, among other things, the breeding and releasing of captive individuals, which was done with much success in the 1990s.[22]

BirdLife International (2021). "Amazona barbadensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T22686325A198373501. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-3.RLTS.T22686325A198373501.en. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
"Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 2022-01-14.
Albin, Eleazar; Derham, William (1738). A Natural History of Birds : Illustrated with a Hundred and One Copper Plates, Curiously Engraven from the Life. Vol. 3. London: Printed for the author and sold by William Innys. p. 11, Plate 11.
Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie, ou, Méthode Contenant la Division des Oiseaux en Ordres, Sections, Genres, Especes & leurs Variétés (in French and Latin). Vol. 4. Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. pp. 236–237.
Latham, John (1781). A General Synopsis of Birds. Vol. 1, Part 1. London: Printed for Benj. White. p. 284, No. 90.
Gmelin, Johann Friedrich (1788). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae : secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1, Part 1 (13th ed.). Lipsiae [Leipzig]: Georg. Emanuel. Beer. p. 339.
Peters, James Lee, ed. (1937). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 3. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 220.
Lesson, René (1831). Traité d'Ornithologie, ou Tableau Méthodique (in French). Vol. 1. Paris: F.G. Levrault. p. 189.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2022). "Parrots, cockatoos". IOC World Bird List Version 12.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 44, 67. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
"Species factsheet: Amazona barbadensis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 22 August 2008.
"Yellow-shouldered Parrot - eBird". Retrieved 2022-01-04.
"Yellow-shouldered parrot Conservation Case Study | The Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund". Retrieved 2022-01-04.
Silvius, Kirsten (1991). "Parrots, Poachers and Payloaders: Status and Natural History of the Yellow-shouldered Amazon on Margarita Island, Venezuela". AFA Watchbird. 18 (4): 17–19.
Farrows. "Yellow-shouldered Parrot: Species in World Land Trust reserves". World Land Trust. Retrieved 2022-01-04.
"Dutch Caribbean Species Register". Retrieved 2022-01-04.
Sanz, Virginia; Rodriguez-Ferraro, Adriana (2006). "Reproductive Parameters and Productivity of the Yellow-Shouldered Parrot on Margarita Island, Venezuela: a Long-Term Study". The Condor. 108 (1): 178–192. doi:10.1650/0010-5422(2006)108[0178:RPAPOT]2.0.CO;2.
Williams, Samuel R. (2010). Factors affecting the life history, abundance and distribution of the yellow-shouldered Amazon parrot (Amazona barbadensis) on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles (phd thesis). University of Sheffield.
Ferrer-Paris, José R; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M.; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez, Gustavo A. (2014). "Using limited data to detect changes in species distributions: Insights from Amazon parrots in Venezuela". Biological Conservation. 173: 133–143. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.07.032.
BirdLife International (2017). "Amazona barbadensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22686325A110628721. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22686325A110628721.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
"Threatened Caribbean species and habitats, Venezuela". Whitley Award. 2002-12-31. Retrieved 2022-01-04.

Sanz, Virginia; Grajal, Alejandro (1998). "Successful Reintroduction of Captive-Raised Yellow-Shouldered Amazon Parrots on Margarita Island, Venezuela". Conservation Biology. 12 (2): 430–441. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.1998.96261.x. ISSN 1523-1739.

Birds of Venezuela by Hilty, ISBN 0-7136-6418-5
Island Resource Foundation. Threatened and Endangered Birds of the Insular Caribbean, Yellow-shouldered Amazon, Amazona barbadensis. Downloaded on 5 June 2006 from

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