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Ammomanes phoenicura

Ammomanes phoenicura (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Alaudidae
Genus: Ammomanes
Species: Ammomanes phoenicura
Subspecies: A. p. phoenicura – A. p. testacea

Ammomanes phoenicura (Franklin, 1831)

Mirafra phoenicura (protonym, "phœnicura")
Ammomanes phoenicurus (orth. err.)


Proceedings of the Zoological Society pt.1: 119.

Vernacular names
العربية: قبرة صهباء الذيل
български: Червеноопашата чучулига
brezhoneg: Alc'hweder lost ruz
Cymraeg: Ehedydd diffeithwch cynffongoch
dansk: Rødhalet Ørkenlærke
Deutsch: Rotschwanzlerche
English: Rufous-tailed Lark
Esperanto: Ruĝvosta dezertalaŭdo
español: Terrera colirroja
euskara: Txoriandre buztangorri
فارسی: چکاوک دم‌حنایی
suomi: Intianaavikkokiuru
français: Ammomane à queue rouge
magyar: Vörösfarkú pacsirta
മലയാളം: ചെമ്പുവാലൻ വാനമ്പാടി
नेपाली: अग्नि भारद्वाज
Nederlands: Roodstaartwoestijnleeuwerik
norsk: Rusthalelerke
svenska: Rödstjärtad ökenlärka
中文: 棕尾漠百灵

The rufous-tailed lark (Ammomanes phoenicura), also sometimes called the rufous-tailed finch-lark, is a ground bird found in the drier open stony habitats of India and parts of Pakistan. Like other species in the genus it has a large finch-like bill with a slightly curved edge to the upper mandible. The dull brown colour matches the soil as it forages for grass seeds, grain and insects. Males and females are indistinguishable in the field but during the breeding season, the male has a courtship display that involves flying up steeply and then nose-diving and pulling up in a series of stepped wavy dips accompanied by calling. They forage on the ground in pairs or small groups.

Taxonomy and systematics

The rufous-tailed lark was originally placed in the genus Mirafra.[2] Alternate names for the rufous-tailed lark include bar-tailed lark, rufous-tailed desert lark, and rufous-tailed finch-lark.

Some taxonomists in the past included the bar-tailed lark as a subspecies of the rufous-tailed lark but the two are now generally considered to be separate species.[3] Walter Koelz designated the peninsular Indian population south of a line across India from Hubli to Bellary and to Ellore as a separate subspecies testaceus (=testacea) that has brighter rufous colours.[4] Some later workers treat the species as monotypic because specimens vary in the brightness (the reddest individuals being from Mysore and Salem).[5][6][7] Two subspecies are recognized:[8]

A. p. phoenicura - (Franklin, 1831): Found in north-eastern Pakistan and central India
A. p. testacea - Koelz, 1951: Found in southern India

Adults have streaks on the throat and breast

Like other Ammomanes larks, the species has a wide curved beak with the nostrils covered by feathers. The hindclaw is as long as the hindtoe and moderately curved. The base of the lower mandible is fleshy while the rest is horn-grey. The legs are also flesh coloured. In the field, the rufous colour, the reddish rump and a dark tail band (narrowing towards the sides to give a triangular shape) are distinctive. The throat is lightly streaked in dark brown. Young birds have less streaking on the underside.[9][10][11]
Feeding on seeds

The species is found mainly in low altitude dry regions in open habitats without significant tree cover. It is resident mainly within India south of the Ganges extending west to Kutch and the Aravallis of Rajasthan. They are summer visitors to parts of Pakistan in northern Punjab and in southern Nepal. The species does not occur in Sri Lanka and reports of their occurrence on the island of Rameshwaram have not been confirmed while the species is largely absent along the Western Ghats region particularly in Kerala.[7][9]
Ecology and behaviour

Usually seen on the ground, but sometimes perching on wires, these birds are not secretive. They walk on the ground making quick dashes to capture insects and when disturbed crouch and stay still to flush only when approached very close. The breeding season is from February to May. The display of males involves rising high with deep beats of the wing and then descending in a series of nose dives accompanied by short burbling or chirruping notes. They also call while perched. The nest is built in a depression in the ground and two to four eggs form the typical clutch. The eggs are broad oval with some gloss. The colour is creamy or pale yellowish-white with spots all over but denser at the broad end.[12] The incubation period has not been ascertained.[9][13]

BirdLife International (2017). "Ammomanes phoenicura". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22717247A118707878. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22717247A118707878.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
"Ammomanes phoenicura - Avibase". Retrieved 2016-11-18.
Dickinson, E.C. & R.W.R.J. Dekker (2001). "Systematic notes on Asian birds. 11. A preliminary review of the Alaudidae" (PDF). Zool. Verh. Leiden. 335: 61–84. Archived from the original on 2007-10-25.
Koelz, W (1951). "Four new subspecies of birds from southwestern Asia. American Museum novitates ; no. 1510". American Museum Novitates. 1510: 3. hdl:2246/3970.
Vaurie, C (1951). "A study of Asiatic larks. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist". 97: 431–526. hdl:2246/952.
Dickinson, E.C.; R.W.R.J. Dekker; S. Eck & S. Somadikarta (2001). "Systematic notes on Asian birds. 12. Types of the Alaudidae" (PDF). Zool. Verh. Leiden. 335: 85–126. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-25.
Ali, S & SD Ripley (1986). Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 5 (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 12–16.
"IOC World Bird List 6.4". IOC World Bird List Datasets. doi:10.14344/
Rasmussen PC & JC Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide. Volume 2. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions. pp. 299–300.
Oates, EW (1890). Fauna of British India. Volume 2. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 339–340.
Baker, ECS (1926). Fauna of British India. Birds. Volume 3 (2nd ed.). London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 349–351.
Ogilvie-Grant, WR (1912). Catalogue of the collection of Birds's eggs in the British Museum. Volume 5. Taylor and Francis, London. p. 145.
Hume, AO (1890). Oates (ed.). The nests and eggs of Indian birds. Volume 2 (2nd ed.). London: R H Proter. pp. 240–242.

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