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Anthus trivialis

Anthus trivialis (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Motacillidae
Genus: Anthus
Species: Anthus trivialis
Subspecies: A. t. haringtoni – A. t. trivialis

Anthus trivialis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Alauda trivialis (protonym)


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 166. Reference page.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Boomkoester
العربية: جشنة الشجر
башҡортса: Урман деүете
беларуская: Лясны свірстун
български: Горска бъбрица
भोजपुरी: एंथस ट्रिवियालिस
brezhoneg: Sidan-koad
català: Piula dels arbres
kaszëbsczi: Lesny piekùt
čeština: Linduška lesní
чӑвашла: Вăрман тихашки
Cymraeg: Corhedydd y Coed
dansk: Skovpiber
Deutsch: Baumpieper

Ελληνικά: Δενδροκελάδα

English: Tree Pipit
Esperanto: Arbopipio
español: Bisbita arbóreo
eesti: Metskiur
euskara: Uda-txirta
فارسی: پپت درختی
suomi: Metsäkirvinen
føroyskt: Viðartítlingur
français: Pipit des arbres
Gaeilge: Riabhóg choille
galego: Pica das árbores
magyar: Erdei pityer
հայերեն: Անտառային ձիաթռչնակ
italiano: Prispolone
日本語: ヨーロッパビンズイ
қазақша: Орман жадырағы
한국어: 나무밭종다리
Lëtzebuergesch: Bampiipsert
lietuvių: Miškinis kalviukas
latviešu: Koku čipste
македонски: Шумска треперка
മലയാളം: മരവരമ്പൻ
монгол: Ойн шийхнүүхэй
नेपाली: बगाले चुइयाँ
Nederlands: Boompieper
norsk nynorsk: Trepiplerke
norsk: Trepiplerke
polski: Świergotek drzewny
português: Petinha-das-árvores
română: Fâsă de pădure
русский: Лесной конёк
slovenčina: Ľabtuška hôrna
svenska: Trädpiplärka
Türkçe: Ağaç incir kuşu
українська: Щеврик лісовий
vèneto: Tordina
vepsän kel’: Jälinduine
中文: 林鹨

The tree pipit (Anthus trivialis) is a small passerine bird which breeds across most of Europe and the Palearctic as far East as the East Siberian Mountains. It is a long-distance migrant moving in winter to Africa and southern Asia. The scientific name is from Latin. Anthus is the name for a small bird of grasslands, and the specific trivialis means "common", from trivium, "public street".


The tree pipit was formally described by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae under the binomial name Alauda trivialis. Linnaeus noted that the species occurred in Sweden.[2] The specific epithet trivialis is Latin meaning "common" or "ordinary" from Latin trivium meaning "public street".[3] The tree pipit is now placed in the genus Anthus that was introduced in 1805 by the German naturalist Johann Matthäus Bechstein.[4][5]

Two subspecies are recognised:[5]

A. t. trivialis (Linnaeus, 1758) – breeds across Europe to southwest Siberia, north Iran and Turkey, east Kazakhstan, southcentral Siberia, Mongolia and northwest China; winters in India and Africa
A. t. haringtoni Witherby, 1917 – breeds in northwest Himalayas; winters in central India


This is a small pipit, which resembles meadow pipit. It is an undistinguished-looking species, streaked brown above and with black markings on a white belly and buff breast below. It can be distinguished from the slightly smaller meadow pipit by its heavier bill and greater contrast between its buff breast and white belly. Tree pipits more readily perch in trees.

The call is a strong spek, unlike the weak call of its relative. The song flight is unmistakable. The bird rises a short distance up from a tree, and then parachutes down on stiff wings, the song becoming more drawn out towards the end.

The breeding habitat is open woodland and scrub. The nest is on the ground, with 4–8 eggs being laid. This species is insectivorous, like its relatives, but will also take seeds.
Life cycle

mid-September to mid-April: lives in sub Saharan Africa
mid April to beginning of May: migrates and arrives in countries such as the United Kingdom
beginning of May to August: breeding season, two broods
August to mid September: flies back to Saharan Africas

Management and conservation

They breed in habitats with a wooded component, including Lowland heath and coppice. They are found mostly in open birch woodland on the boundary with moorland, or open structured oak woodland – therefore heavy thinning is required to produce a gappy character. They prefer low canopy medium-sized trees, where there is low-growing scrub and bramble less than 2 metres high, so that horizontal visibility is relatively high. They like a mosaic of grass and bracken, but not very grazed short turf, so light to moderate grazing is preferred. Glades are also valuable, and streams are preferred.

Once they have arrived they nest on the ground amongst grass or heather tussocks. They forage on invertebrates found in the ground vegetation.

They need scattered trees as song perches.[6]
Grant funding for conservation

The Forestry Commission offers grants under a scheme called England's Woodland Improvement Grant (EWIG); as does Natural Englands Environmental Stewardship Scheme.[citation needed]


BirdLife International (2018). "Anthus trivialis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22718546A131985523. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22718546A131985523.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 166.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 391. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Bechstein, Johann Matthäus (1805). Gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands nach allen drey Reichen (in German) (2nd ed.). Leipzig: Bey Siegfried Lebrecht Crusiu. pp. 247, 302 Note.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2021). "Waxbills, parrotfinches, munias, whydahs, Olive Warbler, accentors, pipits". IOC World Bird List Version 11.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
RSPB Woodland Management For Birds – Pied Flycatcher

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