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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Piciformes

Familia: Ramphastidae
Genus: Aulacorhynchus
Species: A. albivitta – A. atrogularis – A. caeruleogularis – A. coeruleicinctis – A. derbianus – A. haematopygus – A. huallagae – A. prasinus – A. sulcatus – A. wagleri – A. whitelianus

A. cognatus – treated as ssp of caeruleogularis; A. lautus – treated as ssp of albivitta (IOC 9.2)


Aulacorhynchus Gould, 1835
Primary references

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (1834) Pt2 no.24 p.147,text
Additional references

Bonaccorso, E., Guayasamin, J.M., Peterson, A.T. & Navarro-Sigüenza, A.G. 2011. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of Neotropical toucanets in the genus Aulacorhynchus (Aves, Ramphastidae). Zoologica Scripta 40: 336–349. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00475.x Paywall. ResearchGate Open access. Reference page.

Green toucanets[1] are near-passerine birds from the genus Aulacorhynchus in the toucan family. They are native to Mexico, and Central and South America. All are found in humid forests and woodlands in highlands, but a few also occur in adjacent lowlands.[2] They are relatively small toucans, 30–44 centimetres (12–17 in) long, with colorful, mainly green, plumage.[2] They are typically seen in pairs or small groups, and sometimes follow mixed species flocks.[3]
Taxonomy and systematics

A major taxonomy review in 1974 resulted in 6 species in the genus Aulacorhynchus,[4] and this was adopted by virtually all later authorities.[2][5][6][7][8]

In 2001, it was suggested that A. prasinus, as traditionally defined, was a species complex that should be split into 7 different species based on preliminary morphological evidence.[9] This was to some extent supported by genetic evidence, which suggested that additional species should be recognized. As a result, A. griseigularis was split from in A. albivitta based on this early genetic evidence but these species are now lumped together again.[10][11]

Currently, there remains a considerable lack of consensus to support the IOC's latest taxonomy of Aulacorhynchus into eleven species.[12] Several authorities still maintain that the genus Aulacorhynchus has only 7 species and treat the remaining as subspecies.[7][8] The SACC has called for further genetic studies of this genus.[5]

The genus Aulacorhynchus has eleven species considered to belong to the genus:

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Aulacorhynchus wagleri Wagler's toucanet Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero and Oaxaca in south-western Mexico
Aulacorhynchus prasinus -perching on branch-8a.jpg Aulacorhynchus prasinus Emerald toucanet Mexico and Central America
Blue-throated Toucanet - Panama H8O8999.jpg Aulacorhynchus caeruleogularis Blue-throated toucanet Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia
Aulacorhynchus albivitta White-throated toucanet Andes from western Venezuela, through Colombia to northern Ecuador
Aulacorhynchus atrogularis Black-throated toucanet central Ecuador to western Bolivia
Aulacorhynchus sulcatus -Aragua State -Venezuela-8.jpg Aulacorhynchus sulcatus Groove-billed toucanet eastern Colombia and northern Venezuela
Chestnut-tipped Toucanet.JPG Aulacorhynchus derbianus Chestnut-tipped toucanet Colombia to central Bolivia
Aulacorhynchus whitelianus Tepui toucanet Guiana
CRTO Matthew-Gable.JPG Aulacorhynchus haematopygus Crimson-rumped toucanet Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela
Aulacorhynchus huallagae Yellow-browed toucanet east Andean slope in northern Peru.
Blue-banded Toucanet - Manu NP 8191 (16222847287).jpg Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis Blue-banded toucanet Bolivia and Peru.


Boyd, J. (2011). Ramphastidae: Toucans. Accessed 20 May 2011
Short, L. L., & Horne, J. F. M. (2002). Toucans (Ramphastidae). pp. 220-272 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J. eds. (2002). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 7 Jacamars to Woodpecker. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-37-7
Restall, R. L., Rodner, C., & Lentino, M. (2006). Birds of Northern South America. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-7243-9 (vol. 1). ISBN 0-7136-7242-0 (vol. 2).
Haffer, J. (1974). Avian speciation in tropical South America. Publ. Nuttall Ornithol. Club 14: 1–390.
Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, J. Pérez-Emán, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer (2011). A classification of the bird species of South America: Trogoniformes to Piciformes. Archived 2011-09-12 at the Wayback Machine American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed 25 May 2011
Fjeldså, J., and Krabbe, N. (1990). Birds of the High Andes. ISBN 87-88757-16-1
Dickinson, E. C., eds. (2003). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. 3rd edition. ISBN 0-7136-6536-X
Clement, J. F. (2007, w. online updates). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World. 6th edition. ISBN 978-0-7136-8695-1
Navarro, A., Peterson, A., López-Medrano, E., and Benítez-Díaz, H. (2001). Species limits in Mesoamerican Aulocorhynchus Toucanets. The Wilson Bull. 113(4): 363-372
Bonaccorso, E., Guayasamin, J. M., Peterson, A. T., and Navarro-Sigüenza, A. G. (2011). Molecular phylogeny and systematics of Neotropical toucanets in the genus Aulacorhynchus (Aves, Ramphastidae). Zoologica Scripta, 40. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00475.x
Puebla-Olivares, F., E. Bonaccorso, A. E. de los Monteros, K. E. Omland, J. E. Llorente-Bousquets, A. T. Peterson, and A.G. Navarro-Siguenza. (2008). Speciation in the Emerald Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus prasinus) complex. The Auk. 125(1): 39-50.
"IOC World Bird List 6.4". IOC World Bird List Datasets. doi:10.14344/

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