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Bostrychia carunculata

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Aequornithes
Ordo: Pelecaniformes

Familia: Threskiornithidae
Genus: Bostrychia
Species: Bostrychia carunculata

Bostrychia carunculata (Rüppell, 1837)

Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig, entdeckt und beschrieben von Dr. Eduard Rüppell. Vögel. p. 49 pl.19

Vernacular names
čeština: Ibis etiopský
English: Wattled ibis
Türkçe: Püsküllü aynak

The wattled ibis (Bostrychia carunculata) is a species of bird in the family Threskiornithidae. It is endemic to the Ethiopian highlands and is found only in Ethiopia and Eritrea.


The Wattled ibis is a medium-sized, dark brown, crested bird, distinguished by the combination of its dark color, its creast and its extensive white wing-patch. It has a relatively short bill, a fairly long tail and a thin wattle hanging from its throat. The basic color of the adult is dark brown. The brown face is feathered with a dusky red bill. The eye is red and surrounded by a white ring.[2] Plumage is glossed dull green; the waddle is small and red,[3] about 20 mm long.[2] Body length is about 65–75 cm.[4]
Range and habitat

They may occur all over Ethiopian highlands at altitudes ranging from 1500 m to the highest moorlands at 4100 m. It has also been recorded on the coast of Eritrea. It prefers meadows and highland river courses. It is often found in rocky places and cliffs (where it roosts and breeds), but also in open country, cultivated land, city parks and olive tree (Olea africana) and juniper (Juniperus procera) mixed forests.[5] It has also become well adapted to anthropic landscapes and conditions; it can be seen in green areas and lawns of for example down-town Addis Ababa, year round. The wattled ibis is common to abundant.
General habits

The wattled ibis is a gregarious species, often flocking in groups of 30 to 100, but it also can be seen feeding alone or in pairs. It forages in open grasslands, marshes, open alpine moorlands, croplands and forest glades. When feeding it walks about methodologically, probing the ground regularly. It feeds on worms, insect larvae, and small invertebrates; occasionally frogs, snakes and mice. Sometimes it is seen with herds of domestic animals, searching dung for beetles. It roosts singly or in pairs in trees, in groups on rock cliffs, often at sites of breeding colonies. The wattled ibis is predominantly sedentary, undertaking only local, altitudinal movements.
Breeding habits

The wattled ibis usually nests in small to large colonies on rocky cliffs, over bushes hanging in the walls, but it has also been reported to nest singly on top of trees or ledges of buildings. Few colonies are known above 3000 meters, and those in trees at lower elevations (1800 – 2000 m) in Lake Awasa. In the Bale Mountains there are nesting colonies of 500 or more birds. The nest is a platform of branches and sticks, lined with grass and strips of bark; sometimes at high and cold altitudes, they are located to the east for maximum exposure to morning sun. The wattled ibis breeds from March to July; and occasionally in December, during the dry season. It lays two or three rough shelled eggs which are dirty white in color.

No reduction in numbers nor any obvious threat have been reported and the species is often seen within bigger cities like Addis Ababa, not much disturbed by human activity. Therefore, it is not considered to be of conservation concern, since the population is rather large.

BirdLife International (2016). "Bostrychia carunculata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22697468A93615297. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22697468A93615297.en. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
Hancock, James (2011). Storks, ibises and spoonbills of the world. London: Christopher Helms. p. 197. ISBN 9781408134993.
Redman, Nigel (2011). Birds of the Horn of Africa : Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, and Socotra (2nd ed.). London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 9781408125809.
Matheu, Eloïsa; del Hoyo, Josep; Garcia, Ernest; Boesman, Peter F. D. Wattled Ibis (Bostrychia carunculata).

Aerts, R.; Lerouge, F.; November, E. (2019). Birds of forests and open woodlands in the highlands of Dogu'a Tembien. In: Nyssen J., Jacob, M., Frankl, A. (Eds.). Geo-trekking in Ethiopia's Tropical Mountains - The Dogu'a Tembien District. SpringerNature. ISBN 978-3-030-04954-6.

Jose Luis Vivero Pol, 2006, A Guide to Endemic Birds of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Shama Books. ISBN 1-931253-13-7

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