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Brotogeris sanctithomae

Brotogeris sanctithomae (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Psittaciformes

Familia: Psittacidae
Subfamilia: Arinae
Tribus: Arini
Genus: Brotogeris
Species: Brotogeris sanctithomae

Brotogeris sanctithomae (Statius Müller, 1776)

Psittacus St. Thomae (protonym)


Statius Müller, P.L. 1776. Des Ritters Carl von Linné Königlich Schwedischen Leibarztes &c. &c. vollständigen Natursystems Supplements- und Register-Band über alle sechs Theile oder Classen des Thierreichs. Mit einer ausführlichen Erklärung. Nebst drey Kupfertafeln. pp. 1–15 + 1–384; 1–40 + 1–536, Tab. I–III. Nürnberg. (Gabriel Nicolaus Raspe). BHL Reference page. p. 81 BHL

Vernacular names
English: Tui Parakeet
suomi: Sokeriaratti
português: Periquito-estrela

The tui parakeet (Brotogeris sanctithomae) is a species of bird in the family Psittacidae, the true parrots. It is found in the Amazon Basin of Brazil, and Amazonian Peru and Bolivia; also a minor range into eastern Ecuador, and the river border of far south-eastern Colombia.

It is restricted to várzea and other wooded habitats near water. It is rare or entirely absent away from large rivers.


The tui parakeet is a fairly small green parrot with slightly darker wings, and a medium to short, rather wedge-shaped tail. It has a yellow forehead-spot, a relatively dark reddish-dusky bill, a complete white eye ring, and dull yellowish or whitish irises. The eastern subspecies, B. s. takatsukasae, has a small yellow post-ocular spot, which the western nominate subspecies (B. s. sanctithomae) usually lacks.

This parrot shares the genus Brotogeris with seven other species of parrots, but is closest to the yellow-chevroned parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri).[2]
Amazon River corridor, and South-West Basin range

The tui parakeet is found along the Amazon River in a corridor from Ilha de Marajó in east. The Amazon river-wildlife corridor is of variable width, the tui parakeet generally only occurring in the vicinity of major rivers, and continues upstream to the confluence of the southwest Basin's Purús River. A short north range exists up the confluence of the Rio Negro about 250 km. Peculiarly, it is absent from a small section of the Amazon river immediately east of Manaus in Brazil; this "hole" in its distribution also forms the border between the western nominate subspecies (Brotogeris s. sanctithomae) and the eastern B. s. takatsukasae.

In the southwest Amazon Basin, the tui parakeet ranges more widely, it being present in the vicinity of several large rivers such as the Solimões River, Madeira River, Madre de Dios River, Purús River, Juruá River, Ucayali River and lowermost Marañón River. This range includes parts of northern Bolivia, most of the south-western Amazon in Brazil, and all of Amazonian eastern Peru, except the northern regions near the borders with southern Colombia and Ecuador. The exception is the southeast border tongue of Colombia (near Leticia and Puerto Nariño) that extends south and borders the Amazon River. Here is the only range in Colombia of the tui parakeet, as a "restricted-range" species in Colombia, about 150 km.

A small range of the tui parakeet goes upriver along the Napo River in northeastern Ecuador. In the southwest Amazon Basin, its eastern limit is around the Madeira River.

BirdLife International (2016). "Brotogeris sanctithomae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22685994A93095525. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22685994A93095525.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Tavares, E.S.; Baker, A.J.; Pereira, S.L.; Miyaki, C.Y. (2006). "Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of Neotropical parrots (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Arini) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences". Systematic Biology. 55 (3): 454–470. doi:10.1080/10635150600697390. PMID 16861209.

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