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Bubo philippensis

Bubo philippensis (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Strigiformes

Familia: Strigidae
Subfamilia: Striginae
Genus: Bubo
Species: Bubo philippensis
Subspecies: B. p. mindanensis - B. p. philippensis

Bubo philippensis (Kaup, 1851)

Archiv für Naturgeschichte. Berlin. 17 p. 110
Vernacular names
čeština: Výr filipínský
English: Philippine Eagle-Owl
suomi: Filippiinienhuuhkaja
Nederlands: Filipijnse oehoe
norsk: Rusthubro
Türkçe: Filipin puhusu
українська: Філіппінський пугач

The Philippine eagle-owl (Bubo philippensis) is a vulnerable species of owl belonging to the family Strigidae. It is endemic to the Philippines, where it is found in lowland forests on the islands of Catanduanes, Samar, Bohol, Mindanao, Luzon, Leyte and possibly Sibuyan.[3] The Philippine eagle-owl feeds on rodents and amphibians.[4] Due to their reliance on living in large lowland forests, forest conservation is important in order to maintain populations of the Philippine eagle-owl, which is becoming increasingly vulnerable to going extinct.[5] The Philippine eagle-owl was previously listed as endangered, but due to destruction of lowland habitat and possible hunting, the eagle-owl has since been adjusted to the vulnerability of extinction.[6]


There are two subspecies:

Bubo philippensis philippensis - Luzon and Catanduanes
Bubo philippensis mindanensis - Mindanao, Leyte, Samar and Bohol. Darker and more heavily streaked than the nominate.[7]
The subspecies as listed above are Bubo philippensis philippensis and Bubo philippensis mindanensis.[8] These subspecies are able to reproduce with one another which is called interbreeding. However, their offspring are not as viable and strong in comparison to the offspring of the same subspecies.[9]

At Malagos Garden Resort, Davao City, Philippines

The Philippine eagle-owl has a total wingspan of about 48 inches, and with a total length of 40–50 cm (15.5–19.5 in) and a wing-length of about 35 cm (14 in), (where typically a female would size larger than a male) it is the largest owl in the Philippines, but among the smallest members of the genus Bubo.[10][7][11] It is overall rufous with a lighter belly and yellow eyes. It has a warm brown coloring with many markings on its back, with a bird call pitch of a long whistle that rises shortly and falls at the end.[12] It is also described as being incredibly bulky and having tufted ears, closely resembling the Buffy fish-owl, Ketupa Ketupu.[13]

This owl inhabits forest edges near streams. They rest in a tree during the day and hunts hunt at dusk to feed on small vertebrates. The Philippine eagle-owl is the largest owl in the country.[14]

The Philippine eagle-owl has faced threats from several factors within its habitat. Some of those factors include deforestation for agricultural use, commercial logging, and natural causes that destroy the bird's habitat such as catanduanes and typhoons. Another factor that was contributing to the near extinction of these birds was illegal hunting and lack of enforcing the laws.[8] In the Philippines, some law enforcement agencies have poor management and internal corruption.[15] This corruption contributes to the long surviving issue of poaching and illegal trading of animals.[16] Interbreeding has also threatened the eagle-owl since it produces offspring that are infertile and unable to produce.[9]

Little is known about the behavior of this secretive species, but the powerful feet suggest it feeds on small mammals and birds.[7]

This eagle-owl lays one egg per clutch and has an incubation period of 35 days.[17]
Breeding in captivity

In December 2005, Negros Forests and Ecological Foundation (NFEFI) in Bacolod was the first conservation center in the world to successfully hatch a Philippine eagle-owl (aptly nicknamed Bubo) in captivity and it has the only breeding pair of these owls in captivity anywhere in the world.

On November 21, 2005, conservationists at the center made world history when it successfully bred a Philippine eagle-owl in captivity. Notably NFEFI had first secured the first-ever captive breeding loan between DENR-accredited institutions in the Philippines, consisting of three pairs of eagle-owls from the Avilon Montalban Zoological Park in Montalban, Rizal and transported them to Bacolod in December 2002. Two pairs showed attraction, and the couple Hinahon and Suplada—local terms for "calm" and "snob"—made courtship. It was on November 21, 2005, that an owlet was discovered in the nest, about three days old, and named Bubo. As Bubo grew, Suplada taught it how to tear pieces of mouse meat, thus rearing it.

In 2006, Suplada also laid one egg and another owlet was hatched through the aid[clarification needed] of the World Owl Trust, Flora and Fauna International-Philippine Biodiversity Conservation program and the Avilon Zoological Park in Montalban Rizal.[18] The Philippine eagle-owl is also protected in areas through the Conservation of Priority Protected Areas Project (CPPAP) in Luzon, Mts Kitanglad and Apo on MIndanao.[8]

Hunting of the Philippine eagle-owl is illegal in the Philippines, but lacks proper enforcement because many local people are able to resist strict control attempts.[8]
Early life

After hatching, Philippine eagle-owl chicks need to be intensely cared for by their parents. These new chicks are unable to thermoregulate by themselves, so they need the body heat from their mother or father to keep them warm.[19] These chicks are also unable to feed themselves due to their lack of ability to fly. The father bird will go out to catch the food while the mother will tear it up into smaller pieces for the chick to eat.[20]

BirdLife International (2016). "Bubo philippensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22689002A93213848. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22689002A93213848.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
"Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 2022-01-14.
Philippine Eagle-Owl. BirdLife International Factsheet. Accessed 2008-10-05.
"ADOPTION PAGE". PEF. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
"Philippines | The Field Museum". Retrieved 2021-10-16.
Holt, Denver W.; Berkley, Regan; Deppe, Caroline; Enríquez, Paula L.; Petersen, Julie L.; Rangel Salazar, José Luis; Segars, Kelley P.; Wood, Kristin L.; de Juana, Eduardo; Marks, Jeffrey S. (2020-03-04). Del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi; Christie, David; De Juana, Eduardo (eds.). "Philippine Eagle-Owl (Bubo philippensis)". Birds of the World. doi:10.2173/bow.pheowl2.01. S2CID 226080055.
Züchner, T. (1999). Philippine Eagle-Owl (Bubo philippinensis). Pp 192-193 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J. eds. (1999). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 5. Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-25-3
"Philippine Eagle Owl articles - Encyclopedia of Life". Retrieved 2021-10-12.
"species | Definition, Types, & Examples". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
"Philippines | The Field Museum". Retrieved 2021-10-12.
Kennedy, R., Gonzales, P., Dickinson, E., Miranda, H., Jr., & Fisher, T. (2000). A Guide to the Birds of the Philippines. Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 0-19-854668-8
"Philippine Eagle-Owl - eBird". Retrieved 2021-10-16.
Barns, Jeremy (2017). "Post breeding biology of the Philippine Eagle-owl Bubo philippensis". Journal of Natural History. 2: 8–19 – via National Museum of the Philippines.
Avilon Zoo, Archived 2010-01-27 at the Wayback Machine
Ladd, Thomas (1955). "Philippine Police systems". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 46: 1–6.
Ross, Laccay (2017). "Addressing Illegal Wildlife Trade in the Philippines" (PDF). Asian Development Bank.
DED, The DED in the Philippines
Visayan Star, Rare owl lays egg
"Fresh hope for the Philippine Eagle Owl -- Wildlife conservation at Negros Forest and Ecological Foundation in Bacolod City, Negros Occidental -- DED webpage sa Pilipinas - DED". 2009-08-04. Archived from the original on 2009-08-04. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
"Temperature Regulation and Behavior". Retrieved 2021-10-16.

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