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Burhinus bistriatus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Charadriiformes
Subordo: Charadrii

Familia: Burhinidae
Genus: Burhinus
Species: Burhinus bistriatus
Subspecies: B. b. bistriatus – B. b. dominicensis – B. b. pediacus – B. b. vocifer

Burhinus bistriatus (Wagler,1829)

Charadrius bistriatus (protonym)


Wagler, J.G. 1829. Beyträge und Bemerkungen zu dem ersten Bande seines Systema Avium. Isis von Oken 22(6): 645–664 BHL Reference page. col. 648 BHL

Vernacular names
čeština: Dytík dvoupruhý
dansk: Tostribet Triel
Deutsch: Dominikanertriel
English: Double-striped Thick-knee
Esperanto: Dustria trielo
español: Alcaraván Venezolano
eesti: Rohtla-jämejalg
suomi: Amerikanpaksujalka
français: Œdicnème bistrié
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kòk Savann
magyar: Koronás ugartyúk
italiano: Occhione bistriato
日本語: マミジロイシチドリ
Nederlands: Caribische Griel
norsk: Amerikatriel
polski: Kulon amerykański
português do Brasil: Téu-téu-da-savana
português: Téu-téu-da-savana
русский: Доминиканская авдотка
slovenčina: Ležiak dvojpásy
svenska: Amerikansk tjockfot
中文: 双纹石鸻

The double-striped thick-knee (Burhinus bistriatus) is a stone-curlew, a group of waders in the family Burhinidae. The vernacular name refers to the prominent joints in the long greenish-grey legs, and bistriatus to the two stripes of the head pattern.


The double-striped thick-knee was formally described in 1829 by the German naturalist Johann Georg Wagler from a specimen collected in Mexico. He coined the binomial name Charadrius bistriatus.[2] The specific epithet biscutatus combines the Latin bi- meaning "two-" or "double-" with scutatus meaning "armed with a shield" (scutum was an oblong shield).[3] The double-striped thick-knee is now placed in the genus Burhinus that was erected by the German zoologist Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger in 1811.[4][5]

Four subspecies are recognised:[5]

B. b. bistriatus (Wagler, 1829) – south Mexico to northwest Costa Rica
B. b. vocifer (L'Herminier, 1837) – Venezuela, Guyana and north Brazil
B. b. pediacus Wetmore & Borrero, 1964 – north Colombia
B. b. dominicensis (Cory, 1883) – Hispaniola

At the Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens

The double-striped thick-knee is a medium-large wader with a strong black and yellow bill, large yellow eyes, which give it a reptilian appearance, and cryptic plumage. The adult is about 46 to 50 cm (18–20 in) long and weighs about 780 to 785 g (27.5–27.7 oz). It has finely streaked grey-brown upperparts, and a paler brown neck and breast merging into the white belly. The head has a strong white supercilium bordered above by a black stripe. Juveniles are similar to adults, but have slightly darker brown upperparts and a whitish nape. The double-striped thick-knee is striking in flight, with a white patch on the dark upperwing, and a white underwing with a black rear edge.

The four subspecies differ in size and plumage tone, but individual variation makes identification of races difficult.
Distribution and habitat

It is a resident breeder in Central and South America from southern Mexico south to Colombia, Venezuela and northern Brazil. It also occurs on Hispaniola and some of the Venezuelan islands, and is a very rare vagrant to Trinidad, Curaçao and the USA. It prefers arid grassland, savanna, and other dry, open habitats.

This is a largely nocturnal and crepuscular species. It flies only reluctantly, relying on crouching and camouflage for concealment. The double-striped thick-knee eats large insects and other small vertebrate and invertebrate prey. It is sometimes semi-domesticated because of its useful function in controlling insects, and has benefited from the clearing of woodlands to create pasture. The song, given at night, is a loud kee-kee-kee.

The nest is a bare scrape into which two olive-brown eggs are laid and incubated by both adults for 25–27 days to hatching. The downy young are precocial and soon leave the nest.

BirdLife International (2020). "Burhinus bistriatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T22693594A163320186. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T22693594A163320186.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Wagler, Johann Georg (1829). "Beyträge und Bemerkungen zu dem ersten Bande seines Systema Avium". Isis von Oken (in German and Latin). 22. Col 645–664 [648].
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Illiger, Johann Karl Wilhelm (1811). Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium (in Latin). Berolini [Berlin]: Sumptibus C. Salfeld. p. 250.

Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2021). "Buttonquail, thick-knees, sheathbills, plovers, oystercatchers, stilts, painted-snipes, jacanas, Plains-wanderer, seedsnipes". IOC World Bird List Version 11.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 1 June 2021.

ffrench, Richard (1991). A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd ed.). Comstock Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2.
Hilty, Steven L (2003). Birds of Venezuela. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5.
Stiles, F. Gary; Skutch, Alexander F. (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Comstock Publishing Associates. ISBN 0-8014-9600-4.
Hayman, Peter; Marchant, John; Prater, Tony (1991). Shorebirds. Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0-395-60237-9.

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