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Cacatua sulphurea

Cacatua sulphurea (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Psittaciformes

Familia: Cacatuidae
Genus: Cacatua
Species Cacatua sulphurea
Subspecies: C. s. abbotti - C. s. citrinocristata - C. s. parvula - C. s. sulphurea

Cacatua sulphurea (Gmelin, 1788)

Original combination: Psittacus sulphureus (protonym)


Gmelin, J.F. 1788. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. - pp. i–xii, 1–500. Lipsiae. (Beer). DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.545 BHL Reference page. p.330 BHL
IUCN: Cacatua sulphurea (Critically Endangered).

Vernacular names
العربية: كوكاتو أصفر العرف
беларуская: Малы жоўтахохлы какаду
български: Малко жълтокачулато какаду
brezhoneg: Kaketou kupenn velen
català: Cacatua sulfúria
čeština: Kakadu žlutolící
Cymraeg: Cocatŵ cribfelyn bach
dansk: Lille gultoppet kakadu
Deutsch: Gelbwangenkakadu
English: Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
فارسی: طوطی‌کاکلی کاکل‌زری
suomi: Celebesinkakadu
français: Cacatoès soufré
magyar: Aranyosarcú kakadu
Bahasa Indonesia: Kakatua jambul-kuning
italiano: Cacatua crestagialla
日本語: コバタン
한국어: 유황앵무
lietuvių: Mažoji geltonkuodė kakadu
кырык мары: Изи сарикӓ упшан какаду
Bahasa Melayu: Kakaktua Jambul Kuning
Nederlands: Kleine geelkuifkaketoe
norsk: Gyllentoppkakadu
Diné bizaad: Tsídii yáłtiʼíłgaaí diniltsooígíí
polski: kakadu żółtolica
پنجابی: پیلی کلغی والا کوکاٹو
русский: Малый желтохохлый какаду
slovenčina: Kakadu žltochochlatý
svenska: Mindre gultofskakadua
Türkçe: Sarı taçlı kakadu
Tiếng Việt: Vẹt mào vàng
中文: 小葵花凤头鹦鹉

The yellow-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea) also known as the lesser sulphur-crested cockatoo, is a medium-sized (about 34-cm-long) cockatoo with white plumage, bluish-white bare orbital skin, grey feet, a black bill, and a retractile yellow or orange crest. The sexes are similar.

The yellow-crested cockatoo is found in wooded and cultivated areas of East Timor and Indonesia's islands of Sulawesi and the Lesser Sundas. It is easily confused with the larger[3][4] and more common sulphur-crested cockatoo, which has a more easterly distribution and can be distinguished by the lack of pale yellow coloring on its cheeks (although some sulphur-cresteds develop yellowish patches). Also, the yellow-crested cockatoo's crest is a brighter color, closer to orange.[5] The citron-crested cockatoo, which is a subspecies of the yellow-crested cockatoo, is similar, but its crest is clearly orange.[6]

The yellow-crested cockatoo's diet consists mainly of seeds, buds, fruits, nuts, and herbaceous plants.

A yellow-crested cockatoo (left) and a sulphur-crested cockatoo in a Hong Kong park

According to the International Ornithological Congress, 6 subspecies have been recognized:[7]

C. s. sulphurea (nominate subspecies) (Gmelin, JF, 1788) – Sulawesi and nearby smaller islands
C. s. abbotti (Abbott's yellow-crested cockatoo) (Oberholser, 1917) – Masalembu Islands
C. s. djampeana Hartert, E, 1897 – Tanah Jampea
C. s. occidentalis Hartert, E, 1898 – Lesser Sundas from Lombok to Alor (thereby restricting C. p. parvula to Timor)
C. s. parvula (Timor yellow-crested cockatoo) (Bonaparte, 1850) – Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores, Timor, and various other islands in the Lesser Sundas
C. s. citrinocristata (citron-crested cockatoo) (Fraser, 1844) – Sumba

Previously, only 4 of these were recognized, but djampeana and occidentalis were recognized in 2022 based on a 2014 phylogenetic study. The subspecies paulandrewi, thought to be endemic to the Tukangbesi Islands and also recognized in the 2014 study, is not recognized by the IOC.[8][9]

The yellow-crested cockatoo nests in tree cavities. The eggs are white and usually two in a clutch. The incubation is shared by both parents. The eggs are incubated for about 28 days and the chicks leave the nest about 75 days after hatching.[6]
Status and conservation
A legally owned family pet from the United Kingdom

The yellow-crested cockatoo is critically endangered.[1] Numbers have declined dramatically due to illegal trapping for the cage-bird trade. Between 1980 and 1992, over 100,000 of these birds were legally exported from Indonesia, yet a German proposal submitted to CITES to move it to Appendix I[10] was not approved. It has since been moved to Appendix I.[3] The current population is estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals and is thought to be declining in number.[3]

The subspecies C. s. abbotti is found only on the island of Masakambing. Its population on this tiny island (about 5 km2 or 1.9 mi2) had fallen to 10 as of June and July 2008. The decline results from trapping and logging, especially of mangrove (Avicennia apiculata) and kapok trees.[11]

Several national parks provide protection of their habitat, including Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park on Sulawesi, Komodo National Park on Komodo Island, the national parks of Manupeu Tanah Daru and Laiwangi Wanggameti on Sumba, and the Nino Konis Santana National Park in East Timor (Timor-Leste).[3]
Introduced population

An introduced population of these birds is found in Hong Kong.[12] They are a common sight across the densely populated area on both sides of the harbour, easily spotted in the woods and public parks in the north and west of Hong Kong Island. The large group has apparently developed from a number of caged birds that have been released into the Hong Kong area over many years.[13] An often repeated story is that Hong Kong Governor Sir Mark Aitchison Young released the Government House's entire bird collection – including a large number of yellow-crested cockatoos – hours before surrendering Hong Kong to Japanese troops in December 1941. [14] Historians and conservation biologists in Hong Kong have found no evidence to corroborate this story, and believe that Hong Kong's yellow-crested cockatoo population is made up of escaped pets. The earliest record of an escaped pet yellow-crested cockatoo comes from 1959.[15]

BirdLife International (2018). "Cacatua sulphurea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22684777A131874695. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22684777A131874695.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
"Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 2022-01-14.
BirdLife Species Factsheet, retrieved 10 February 2010
Birds in backyards factsheets: Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
Yellow-crested and sulphur-crested cockatoo on Flickr - Photo Sharing!
Alderton, David (2003). The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Caged and Aviary Birds. London, England: Hermes House. p. 204. ISBN 1-84309-164-X.
"Parrots, cockatoos – IOC World Bird List". Retrieved 2022-05-13.
N.J. Collar, N.J.; and Marsden, S.J. (2014). The subspecies of Yellow-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea). Forktail 30.
"IOC World Bird List 12.1". IOC World Bird List Datasets. doi:10.14344/
CITES proposal
"Project Bird Watch / Indonesian Parrot Project - How You Can Help". October 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
Wu, Venus. "How an endangered cockatoo took over Hong Kong". Goldthread. South China Morning Post. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
Zabrina Lo (3 July 2019). "The foreign origins and uncertain future of Hong Kong's cockatoos". Zolima Citymag. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
HK Magazine Friday, February 18th 2005, pp6-7
Elegant, Naomi Xu (2021-09-24). "Could Hong Kong's Fugitive Cockatoos Save the Species?". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 2022-06-28.

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