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Calandrella brachydactyla

Calandrella brachydactyla (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Alaudidae
Genus: Calandrella
Species: Calandrella brachydactyla
Subspecies: C. b. artemisiana – C. b. brachydactyla – C. b. hermonensis – C. b. hungarica – C. b. longipennis – C. b. orientalis – C. b. rubiginosa – C. b. woltersi

Calandrella brachydactyla (Leisler, 1814)

Alauda brachydactila (protonym; orth. err.)
Alauda brachydactyla


Annalen Wetterauischen Gesellschaft fuer die gesammte Naturkunde 3 (2): 357, t.XIX.
ICZN Opinion 411, 1956 (orthography correction).

Vernacular names
العربية: قبرة قصيرة الأصابع
башҡортса: Ялпылдаҡ
български: Късопръста чучулига
brezhoneg: Kodioc'h-tevenn
català: Terrerola vulgar
qırımtatarca: Boztorğay
čeština: Skřivánek krátkoprstý
Deutsch: Kurzzehenlerche

Ελληνικά: Μικρογαλιάντρα (Ευρωπαϊκή)

English: Greater Short-toed Lark
Esperanto: Mallongfingra alaŭdo
español: Terrera común
eesti: Välja-väikelõoke
euskara: Txoriandere arrun
suomi: Lyhytvarvaskiuru
føroyskt: Eyrlerkur
français: Alouette calandrelle
galego: Calandriña común
magyar: Szikipacsirta
հայերեն: Արտույտ փոքր
lietuvių: Trumpapirštis vieversys
Nederlands: Kortteenleeuwerik
norsk: Dverglerke
polski: Skowrończyk krótkopalcowy
português: Calhandrinha-comum
русский: Малый жаворонок
svenska: Korttålärka
Türkçe: Bozkır toygarı
中文: 大短趾百灵

The greater short-toed lark (Calandrella brachydactyla) is a small passerine bird. The current scientific name is from Ancient Greek. The genus name, Calandrella, is a diminutive of kalandros, the calandra lark, and brachydactila is from brakhus, "short", and daktulos, "toe".[2]

It breeds in southern Europe, north-west Africa, and across the Palearctic from Turkey and southern Russia to Mongolia. During migration they form large, tight flocks that move in unison; at other times they form loose flocks.

1 Taxonomy and systematics
1.1 Subspecies
2 Description
3 Distribution and habitat
4 References
5 External links

Taxonomy and systematics

The greater short-toed lark was described by the German naturalist Johann Leisler in 1814 and given the binomial name Alauda brachydactila.[3] This lark is now placed in the genus Calandrella that was established by another German naturalist, Johann Jakob Kaup, in 1829.[4] The specific name brachydactyla is from the Ancient Greek βραχυδακτυλος brakhudaktulos "short-toed" from brakhus "short" and daktulos "toe".[5] The alternate name short-toed lark may also be used for three other species in the genus Calandrella. The Mongolian short-toed lark was formerly considered as a subspecies of the greater short-toed lark (as C. b. dukhunensis) until split in 2016 by the IOC.[6] Formerly, some authorities also considered the red-capped lark to be either conspecific (as C. cinerea) with or a subspecies (as C. b. cinerea) of the greater short-toed lark.[7]

Eight subspecies are recognized:[8]

European greater short-toed lark (C. b. brachydactyla) or Palestine short-toed lark - (Leisler, 1814): Found in southern Europe, on Mediterranean islands and in north-western Africa.
Hungarian greater short-toed lark (C. b. hungarica) - Horváth, 1956: Found in Hungary and northern Serbia
North African greater short-toed lark (C. b. rubiginosa) - Fromholz, 1913: Found in northern Africa
Levant greater short-toed lark (C. b. hermonensis) - Tristram, 1865: Originally described as a separate species. Found from southern Turkey and Syria to north-eastern Egypt.

The syntypes of Calandrella hermonensis Tristram (Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, p.434), 3 adult males and a juvenile, are held in the vertebrate zoology collection of National Museums Liverpool at World Museum, with accession numbers NML-VZ T15738, NML-VZ T17770, NML-VZ T17771 and NML-VZ T17773. The specimens were collected at the foot of Mount Hermon, Lebanon in June 1864 by Canon Henry Baker Tristram. The specimens came to the Liverpool national collection through the purchase of Tristram's collection by the museum in 1896.[9]

BIrelandcik greater short-toed lark (C. b. woltersi) - Kumerloeve, 1969: Found in southern Turkey and north-western Syria
Transcaucasian greater short-toed lark (C. b. artemisiana) - Banjkovski, 1913: Found from central Turkey and Transcaucasia to north-western Iran
Steppe greater short-toed lark (C. b. longipennis) - (Eversmann, 1848): Originally described as a separate species in the genus Alauda. Also known as Eastern short-toed lark (a name also used by the Asian short-toed lark) or Yarkand short-toed lark. Found from Ukraine and southern Russia to south-central Siberia and southern Mongolia
C. b. orientalis - Sushkin, 1925: Found in central Siberia, northern Mongolia and northern China

From Khangchendzonga National Park, West Sikkim, India.
Greater Short-toed Lark

Several subspecies have been named but there is considerable geneflow and the species itself forms part of a larger complex. This is a small pale lark, smaller than the skylark. It is dark-streaked greyish-brown above, and white below, and has a strong pointed bill that is pinkish with a grey culmen. It has a pale supercilium, dark patches on each side of its neck and a dark tail. Some birds in the west of the range have a rufous crown. The sexes are similar. The greater short-toed lark is paler than the Mongolian short-toed lark which also has a shorter bill.[10] In winter they fly in large and compact flocks that swing in synchrony.[11] Care must be taken to distinguish this species from other similar Calandrella larks, such as the Mediterranean short-toed lark.

The nominate form breeds in Europe (Iberia, France, Italy, the Balkans and Romania) and winters in Africa. Subspecies hungarica breeds in the eastern parts of Europe while rubiginosa breeds in north-western Africa. Subspecies hermonensis (sometimes including woltersi) breeds in Turkey, Syria and Egypt. Subspecies artemisiana (considered by some to be synonymous with longipennis[12]) breeds in Asia Minor and winters in southern west Asia. Subspecies longipennis breeds in Ukraine, Mongolia and Manchuria and winters in South Asia mainly in the drier zone of north-western India.[11]

The song varies between a dry twittering and a more varied and imitative melody. Flocks will often fly together to water in the mornings at favourite spots. In the evenings they roost in open ground, with each bird squatting in a small depression made in the soil.[13]
Distribution and habitat
Calandrella brachydactyla - MHNT

All but some southernmost populations are migratory, wintering south to the southern edge of the Sahara and India. This species is a fairly common wanderer to northern and western Europe in spring and autumn.[14] Populations breeding in the Iberian Peninsula winter south of the Sahara in Africa. Here they prefer crop land and dry pastures with short shrubs while the syntopic Mediterranean short-toed larks (Calandrella rufescens) prefer drier areas.[15]

This is a common bird of dry open country and cultivation. It nests on the ground, laying two to three eggs. Its food is seeds and insects, the latter especially in the breeding season.

In colonial India, they were hunted for food as ortolans.[11]

They visit parts of South Asia in large flocks during winter and are sometimes attracted to short grass areas along aerodromes and become a bird strike risk to aircraft.[16]

BirdLife International (2018). "Calandrella brachydactyla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T103766207A132042070. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T103766207A132042070.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 76, 84. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Leisler, Johann Philipp Achilles (1814). "Die kurzzehige Lerche Alauda brachydactila". Annalen der Wetterauischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammte Naturkunde zu Hanau (in German). 3: 357, plate 19.
Kaup, Johann Jakob (1829). Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt (in German). Darmstadt: Carl Wilhelm Leske. p. 39.
Jobling, J.A. (2018). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
"Species Updates « IOC World Bird List". Retrieved 12 December 2016.
"Calandrella cinerea - Avibase". Retrieved 12 December 2016.
"IOC World Bird List 6.4". IOC World Bird List Datasets. doi:10.14344/
R. Wagstaffe (1 December 1978). Type Specimens of Birds in the Merseyside County Museums (formerly City of Liverpool Museums).
Rasmussen, PC; JC Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Vol. 2. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx edicions. p. 303.
Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular Handbook of Indian Birds (4th ed.). Gurney and Jackson, London. p. 256.
Dickinson, E.C.; R.W.R.J. Dekker (2001). "Systematic notes on Asian birds. 11. A preliminary review of the Alaudidae" (PDF). Zool. Verh. Leiden. 335: 61–84. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2007.
Ali, S; S D Ripley (1986). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Vol. 5 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 19–22.
Tomek, T. & Bocheński, Z. (2005). "Weichselian and Holocene bird remains from Komarowa Cave, Central Poland" (PDF). Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia. 48A (1–2): 43–65. doi:10.3409/173491505783995743.
Suarez, Francisco; Vincente Garza; Manuel B Morales (2002). "Habitat use of two sibling species, the Short-toed Calandrella brachydactyla and the Lesser Short-toed C. rufescens Larks in mainland Spain" (PDF). Ardeola. 49 (2): 259–272.
Mahesh, SS (2009). "Management of Greater Short-toed Larks Calandrella brachydactyla in Indian aerodromes". Indian Birds. 5 (1): 2–6.

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