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Lapland Longspur - Calcarius lapponicus - Sportittlingur 4

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Calcariidae
Genus: Calcarius
Species: Calcarius lapponicus

Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Fringilla lapponica (protonym)


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 180. Reference page.

Vernacular names
asturianu: Escribana Lapona
башҡортса: Юл турғайы
беларуская: Снежны падарожнік
български: Лапландска овесарка
brezhoneg: Brean an toundra
català: Repicatalons de Lapònia
čeština: Strnad severní
Cymraeg: Bras y Gogledd
dansk: Lapværling
Deutsch: Spornammer
English: Lapland Bunting
Esperanto: Laponemberizo
español: Escribano lapón
eesti: Lapi tsiitsitaja
euskara: Ipar-berdantza
فارسی: پنجه‌بلند لاپلند
suomi: Lapinsirkku
føroyskt: Fjallasnjófuglur
français: Plectrophane lapon
Frysk: Iisfink
Gaeilge: Gealóg Laplannach
galego: Escribenta lapona
Gaelg: Pompee loghlinagh
עברית: גיבתון לפלנד
hrvatski: Laponska strnadica
magyar: Sarkantyús sármány
Iñupiak: Qupałuk
íslenska: Sportittlingur
italiano: Zigolo di Lapponia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: Kowlegak
日本語: ツメナガホオジロ
ქართული: ლაპლანდიური მეგზია
қазақша: Жолторғай
kalaallisut: Narsarmiutaq
한국어: 긴발톱멧새
lietuvių: Pentinuotoji starta
latviešu: Lapzemes stērste
мокшень: Тундрань цифтаз
монгол: Лапланд буулгатхөмрөг
Malti: Durrajsa tan-Nord
Nederlands: IJsgors
norsk nynorsk: Lappsporv
norsk: Lappspurv
Diné bizaad: Náhookǫs biyaadę́ę́ʼ tsídiiłbáhí késhgaaní
polski: Poświerka zwyczajna
português: Escrevedeira-da-lapónia
rumantsch: Marena dal nord
русский: Лапландский подорожник
саха тыла: Быртакыыс
davvisámegiella: Cizopaš
slovenčina: Ostrohárka severská
slovenščina: Ostroglež
српски / srpski: Laponska strnadica
svenska: Lappsparv
Türkçe: Mahmuzlu çinte
українська: Подорожник лапландський
中文: 铁爪鹀

The Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus), also known as the Lapland bunting, is a passerine bird in the longspur family Calcariidae, a group separated by most modern authors from the Fringillidae (Old World finches).


The English name refers to the long hind claws.[2] The genus name Calcarius is from Latin calcaria, "spurs", and the specific lapponicus refers to Lapland.[3]

The Lapland longspur is a robust bird, with a thick yellow seed-eater's bill. The summer male has a black head and throat, white eyestripe, chestnut nape, white underparts, and a heavily streaked black-grey back. Other plumages have a plainer orange-brown head, a browner back and chestnut nape and wing panels.


Length: 5.9-6.3 in (15-16 cm)
Weight: 0.8-1.2 oz (22.3-33.1 g)
Wingspan: 8.7-11.4 in (22-29 cm)

Distribution and habitat

It breeds across Arctic Europe and the Palearctic and in Canada and the northernmost United States. It is migratory, wintering in the Russian steppes, the southern United States, Northern Scandinavian arctic areas and down to coastal Southern Sweden, Denmark and Great Britain. This is the only Asian species of the longspur buntings, and while it probably did not evolve there, it has been present in Eastern Europe for at least about 30,000 years.[5]

The most common flight call is a hard "prrrrt" usually preceded by a more nasal "teeww". When breeding, it also makes a softer "duyyeee" followed by a pause and a "triiiuuu"; both sounds alternate.

It breeds in wet areas with birch or willow, and or bare mountains, and winters on cultivated land or coasts. The bird is often seen close to the tree line, and likes to feed in mixed-species flocks in winter. Its natural food consists of insects when feeding young, and otherwise seeds. The nest is on the ground. 2–4 eggs are laid.
Food habits
Sitting on a dead cow parsnip, Buldir Island, Alaska

The food habits of the Lapland longspur are quite simple: mostly seeds in winter and arthropods in the summer, when they are in activity.[6]

During the winter, the longspur feeds on seeds. They pick them on the ground, rarely feeding directly on plants. They will forage around the same area for a period varying between a few minutes and an hour, then fly away looking for a new foraging area. Their seed diet is composed mainly of seeds from grass, foxtail, cultivated millet, crabgrass and wheat.[6] During the breeding season, the birds migrate to the north, where their diet switches to arthropods. Nestlings are only fed arthropods, which also constitute the diet of the parents at that time of the year (June to July). The birds often catch insects in mid-air, but do forage through vegetation when climatic conditions prevent the insects from flying.[7] Longspurs can consume between 3000 and 10,000 prey items (insects or seeds) per day, depending on their energy needs. Dipteran larvae and adults form the major part of their insectivorous diet.[8]


BirdLife International (2017). "Calcarius lapponicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22721033A111138693. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22721033A111138693.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
"Long". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. pp. 84, 219. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
"Lapland Longspur Identification, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology". Retrieved 2020-09-29.
Tomek, Teresa; Bocheński, Zygmunt (2005). "Weichselian and Holocene bird remains from Komarowa Cave, Central Poland". Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia. Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences. 48A (1–2): 43–65. doi:10.3409/173491505783995743.
Gabrielson, Ira Noel (1924). "Food habits of some winter bird visitants". U.S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin (1249).
Watson, Adam (1957). "Birds of the Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island". The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 71 (3): 87–109.
Custer, Thomas W.; Pitelka, Frank A. (1978). "Seasonal trends in summer diet of the Lapland longspur near Barrow, Alaska". The Condor. 80 (3): 295–301. doi:10.2307/1368039. JSTOR 1368039.

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