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Calonectris diomedea

Calonectris diomedea (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Aequornithes
Ordo: Procellariiformes

Familia: Procellariidae
Genus: Calonectris
Species: Calonectris diomedea

Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli, 1769)

Procellaria diomedea (protonym)


Scopoli 1769. Annus I. Historico-naturalis. Descriptiones avium musei proprii earumque rariorum, quas vidit in vivario Augustiss. Imperatoris, et in museo excell. Comitis Francisci Annib. Turriani. Lipsiae, Chr. G. Hilscher. (V): 74.

Vernacular names
български: Жълтоклюн буревестник
català: Baldriga cendrosa mediterrània
Cymraeg: Aderyn drycin Scopoli
dansk: Kuhls Skråpe

Ελληνικά : Αρτέμης

English: Scopoli's Shearwater
Esperanto: Flavbeka pufino
español: Pardela cenicienta
suomi: Välimerenliitäjä
français: Puffin cendré
hrvatski: Veliki zovoj
italiano: Berta maggiore
Nederlands: Scopoli's pijlstormvogel
polski: Burzyk żółtodzioby
português: Cagarra-do-mediterrâneo
русский: Атлантический пёстрый буревестник
slovenčina: Víchrovník žltozobý
svenska: Scopolilira
українська: Строкатий атлантичний буревісник

Scopoli's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a seabird in the petrel family Procellariidae. It breeds on rocky islands and on steep coasts in the Mediterranean but outside the breeding season it forages in the Atlantic. It is brownish grey above with darker wings and mostly white below. The bill is pale yellow with a dark patch near the tip. The sexes are alike. It was formerly considered to be conspecific with Cory's shearwater.

Egg, Muséum de Toulouse

Scopoli's shearwater was formally described in 1769 by the Austrian naturalist Giovanni Antonio Scopoli. He placed it with the other petrels in the genus Procellaria and coined the binomial name Procellaria diomedea. Scopoli did not mention a type locality but this was designated in 1946 by the British Ornithologists' Union as the Tremiti Islands in the Adriatic.[2][3] Scopoli's shearwater is now placed in the genus Calonectris that was introduced in 1915 by the ornithologists Gregory Mathews and Tom Iredale.[4][5] The genus name combines the Ancient Greek kalos meaning "good" or "noble" with the genus name Nectris that was used for shearwaters by the German naturalist Heinrich Kuhl in 1820. The name Nectris comes from the Ancient Greek nēktris meaning "swimmer". The specific epithet diomedea refers to Diomedes, a hero in Greek mythology. His wife was serially unfaithful while he fought at Troy, so he left to found a city in Italy. After his death, his distraught friends were turned into white seabirds.[6][7] The species is considered to be monotypic: no subspecies are recognised.[5]

Scopoli's shearwater and Cory's shearwater were previously considered as conspecific. They formed the Cory's shearwater complex (Calonectris diomedea). Based on the lack of hybridization and differences in mitochondrial DNA, morphology and vocalization, the complex was split into two separate species. The English name "Cory's shearwater" was transferred to Calonectris borealis while what was previously the nominate subspecies became Scopoli's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea).[5][8]

Although most ornithological authorities treat Cory's shearwater and Scopoli's shearwater as separate species,[5][9][10] the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology has chosen not to do so in their updates to The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World.[11]

Scopoli's shearwater is 45–52 cm (18–20 in) in overall length with a wingspan of 112–122 cm (44–48 in).[12] The upperparts are brownish-grey with most feathers fringed with a lighter brown. The wings are a darker brown. The upper tail-coverts are tipped whitish and the tail is dark brown. The underparts are mostly white with a brown border which is most prominent of the trailing edge of the wing. The bill is pale yellow with a dark patch near the tip. The legs and feet are a pale flesh colour.[13] The sexes are similar in appearance but the male is on average slightly larger than the female.[14][15]

The appearance is very similar to Cory's shearwater and the two species can be difficult to distinguish. The underside of the wing of Scopoli's shearwater has more white on the primary feathers at the wingtip, in particular the outermost large feather (P10).[15][16] The Cape Verde shearwater is smaller and is significantly darker above.[13]
Distribution and habitat
Skull of a Scopoli's shearwater

Scopoli's shearwater breeds on islands in the Mediterranean from the Chafarinas Islands off the Moroccan coast in the west to the Dodecanese near Turkey in the east. The largest colony is on the rocky island of Zembra, 13 km (8.1 mi) off the Tunisian coast. The colony contains between 141,000 and 223,000 breeding pairs which represents more than 75 percent of the global population.[17] Other large colonies are on the island of Linosa in the Strait of Sicily,[18] and on the Balearic Islands.[17]

At the end of October, after the breeding season, Scopoli's shearwaters migrate to the Atlantic and stream out of the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar.[19] They return to the Mediterranean at the end of February. Studies using light level geolocators have found that birds tagged either on the island of Linosa or on the Pantaleu islet in the Balearic Islands wintered in regions associated with major upwellings in the south east Atalantic. The birds either foraged off the coast of West Africa in the upwelling associated with the Canary Current or continued further south and foraged in the Benguela Current off the coast of Namibia.[20][21]
Food and feeding

Scopoli's shearwater mainly feeds on small fish, but it also consumes cephalopods and crustacean. It feeds by skimming over the surface or by surface feeding but only rarely plunges completely beneath the surface. Sometimes it will follows whales and tuna to pick up food scraps and to catch small fish driven to the surface. It will also scavenge discards from fishing vessels.[13][22]

BirdLife International (2018). "Calonectris diomedea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T45061132A132667885. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T45061132A132667885.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
British Ornithologists' Union (1946). "Seventeenth Report of the Committee on the Nomenclature and Records of the Occurrence of Rare Birds in the British Islands, and on certain necessary Changes in the Nomenclature of the B.O.U. List of British Birds". Ibis. 88 (4): 533-534 [534]. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1946.tb03508.x.
Mayr, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1979). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 88.
Mathews, Gregory M.; Iredale, Tom (1915). "On some petrels from the North-East Pacific Ocean". Ibis: 572–609 [590, 592].
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2022). "Petrels, albatrosses". IOC World Bird List Version 12.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 86, 267, 136. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Kuhl, Heinrich (1820). Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie (in German and Latin). Frankfurt am Main: Verlag der Hermannschen Buchhandlung. p. 148.
Sangster, G.; Collinson, J.M.; Crochet, P.-A.; Knox, A.G.; Parkin, D.T.; Votier, S.C. (2012). "Taxonomic recommendations for Western Palearctic birds: eighth report". Ibis. 154 (4): 874–883. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2012.01273.x.
Dickinson, E.C.; Remsen, J.V., Jr., eds. (2013). The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1: Non-passerines (4th ed.). Eastbourne, UK: Aves Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-9568611-0-8.
"Species Factsheet: Scopoli's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea". BirdLife International. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
"Clements Checklist". Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
Svensson, Lars; Mullarney, Killian; Zetterström, Dan (2009). Collins Bird Guide (2nd ed.). London: HarperCollins. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-00-726814-6.
Cramp, Stanley, ed. (1977). "Calonectris diomedea Cory's Shearwater". Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. I: Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 136–140. ISBN 978-0-19-857358-6.
Gómez-Díaz, E.; González-Solís, J.; Peinado, M.A.; Page, R.D.M. (2006). "Phylogeography of the Calonectris shearwaters using molecular and morphometric data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 41 (2): 322–332. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.006. See Supplementary Data for morphological measurements.
Flood, Robert; Gutiérrez, Ricard (2019). "The status of Cory's Shearwater in the western Mediterranean Sea". Dutch Birding. 41: 159–165.
Flood, Robert L.; Gutiérrez, Ricard (2021). "Field separation of Cory's Calonectris borealis and Scopoli's C. diomedea Shearwaters by underwing pattern" (PDF). Marine Ornithology. 49 (2): 311–320.
Defos du Rau, P.; Bourgeois, K.; Thévenet, M.; Ruffino, L.; Dromzée, S.; Ouni, R.; Abiadh, A.; Estève, R.; Durand, J.-P.; Anselme, L.; Faggio, G.; Yahya, J.M.; Rguibi, H.; Renda, M.; Miladi, B.; Hamrouni, H.; Alilech, S.; Nefla, A.; Jaouadi, W.; Agrebi, S.; Renou, S. (2015). "Reassessment of the size of the Scopoli's Shearwater population at its main breeding site resulted in a tenfold increase: implications for the species conservation". Journal of Ornithology. 156 (4): 877–892. doi:10.1007/s10336-015-1187-4.
Baccetti, N.; Capizzi, D.; Corbi, F.; Massa, B.; Nissardi, S.; Spano, G.; Sposimo, P. (2009). "Breeding shearwaters on Italian islands: population size, island selection and co-existence with their main alien predator, the black rat". Rivista Italiana di Ornitologia. 78: 83–99.
Tellería, José Luis (1980). "Autumn migration of Cory's Shearwater through the Straits of Gibraltar". Bird Study. 27 (1): 21–26. doi:10.1080/00063658009476652.
Müller, M.S.; Massa, B.; Phillips, R.A.; Dell’omo, G. (2014). "Individual consistency and sex differences in migration strategies of Scopoli's shearwaters Calonectris diomedea despite year differences". Current Zoology. 60 (5): 631–641. doi:10.1093/czoolo/60.5.631.
De Felipe, F.; Reyes-González, J.M.; Militão, T.; Neves, V.C.; Bried, J.; Oro, D.; Ramos, R.; González-Solís, J. (2019). "Does sexual segregation occur during the nonbreeding period? A comparative analysis in spatial and feeding ecology of three Calonectris shearwaters". Ecology and Evolution. 9 (18): 10145–10162. doi:10.1002/ece3.5501.
Michel, L.; Cianchetti-Benedetti, M.; Catoni, C.; Dell’Omo, G. (2021). "How shearwaters prey. New insights in foraging behaviour and marine foraging associations using bird-borne video cameras". Marine Biology. 169 (1): 7. doi:10.1007/s00227-021-03994-w.

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