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Cardellina rubrifrons

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Parulidae
Genus: Cardellina
Species: Cardellina rubrifrons

Cardellina rubrifrons (Giraud, Jr., 1841)

Muscicapa rubrifrons (protonym)


Giraud Jr., J.P. 1841. A description of sixteen new species of North American birds, described in the Annals of the New York Lyceum of Natural History. Collected in Texas, 1838. George F. Nesbitt. New York. 18 pp. 8 pl. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.58227 BHL Reference page. p. 13 BHL.

Vernacular names
العربية: هازجة حمراء الوجه
čeština: Lesňáček rudočelý
dansk: Rødmaske
Deutsch: Dreifarben-Waldsänger
English: Red-faced Warbler
Esperanto: Ruĝfrunta parulio
español: Chipe de Cara Colorada
suomi: Mustahilkkakerttuli
français: Paruline à face rose
italiano: Parula cardellina
日本語: アカガオアメリカムシクイ
lietuvių: Raudonskruostis krūminukas
Nederlands: Roodmaskerzanger
norsk: Rubinparula
polski: Szczyglówka
русский: Краснолицая древесница
slovenčina: Horárik javorový
svenska: Rödbröstad skogssångare
中文: 红脸森莺

The red-faced warbler (Cardellina rubrifrons) is a species of New World warbler.

Mature red-faced warblers are small birds, 14 cm (5+1⁄2 in) long. They are light gray on top with a white rump and a white underside. The face, neck, and upper breast are all bright red, while the crown and sides of the head are black. The spot on the back of the head where the black crown and gray back meet is sometimes speckled gray, or sometimes plain white. They have a quirky habit of flicking their tail sideways while feeding.

Red-faced warblers are locally common in mountain forests of conifers and oak at 2,000 to 3,000 m (6,600 to 9,800 ft) above sea level. In summer they frequent northern Mexico and range up into the states of Arizona and New Mexico – the Madrean sky islands. In winter they migrate south into southern Mexico and the Central American nations of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. They are permanent residents of the central and southern mountains of western Mexico, the range called Sierra Madre Occidental.

The nest is a small cup constructed from leaves, grass, and pine needles. It is hidden amongst the debris on the forest floor, buried in the ground, sheltered under a shrub, log, or rock. The female lays 3 to 5 eggs, which are white spotted with brown. Incubation and nestling periods average 12 days each.


BirdLife International (2016). "Cardellina rubrifrons". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22721885A94737888. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22721885A94737888.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.

Curson, J., Quinn, D. & Beadle, D. (1994). New World Warblers. Helm. ISBN 0-7136-3932-6

Further reading

Martin, T. E., and P. M. Barber. 1995. Red-faced Warbler (Cardellina rubrifrons). In The Birds of North America, No. 152 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.


Barber PM, Martin TE & Smith KG. (1998). Pair interactions in Red-faced Warblers. Condor. vol 100, no 3. p. 512-518.
Dobbs RC & Martin TR. (1998). Variation of foraging behavior among nesting stages of female Red-faced Warblers. Condor. vol 100, no 4. p. 741-745.
Hellebuyck V. (1983). 3 New Specimen Records of Birds for El-Salvador. Wilson Bulletin. vol 95, no 4. p. 662-664.
Lovette IJ & Hochachka WM. (2006). Simultaneous effects of phylogenetic niche conservatism and competition on avian community structure. Ecology. p. S) S14-S28, JUL 2006.
Martin TE. (1996). Fitness costs of resource overlap among coexisting bird species. Nature. vol 380, no 6572. p. 338-340.
Martin TE. (1998). Are microhabitat preferences of coexisting species under selection and adaptive?. Ecology. vol 79, no 2. p. 656-670.
Martin TE & Barber PM. (1995). Red-faced Warbler Cardellina rubrifrons. Birds of North America. vol 0, no 152. p. 1-16.
Martin TE, Scott J & Menge C. (2000). Nest predation increases with parental activity: Separating nest site and parental activity effects. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B. vol 267, no 1459. p. 2287-2293.
McCaskie G. (1970). A Red-Faced Warbler Reaches California. California Birds. vol 1, no 4. p. 145-146.
Palacios MG & Martin TE. (2006). Incubation period and immune function: a comparative field study among coexisting birds. Oecologia. vol 146, no 4. p. 505-512.
Patricia MB, Thomas EM & Kimberly GS. (1998). Pair interactions in Red-faced Warblers. The Condor. vol 100, no 3. p. 512.
Robert CD & Thomas EM. (1998). Variation in foraging behavior among nesting stages of female Red-faced Warblers. The Condor. vol 100, no 4. p. 741.
Rusterholz KA. (1981). Competition and the Structure of an Avian Foraging Guild. American Naturalist. vol 118, no 2. p. 173-190.

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