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Triguero, Miliaria calandria. (6990549190)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Emberizidae
Genus: Emberiza
Species: Emberiza calandra
Subspecies: E. c. burturlini – E. c. calandra

Emberiza calandra Linnaeus, 1758

Miliaria calandra

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 176. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: درسة القمح
беларуская: Прасянка
български: Сива овесарка
brezhoneg: Brean kilheri
català: Cruixidell
čeština: Strnad luční
dansk: Bomlærke
Deutsch: Grauammer
Ελληνικά: Τσιφτάς
English: Corn Bunting
Esperanto: Grenemberizo
español: Triguero
eesti: Halltsiitsitaja
euskara: Gari-berdantza
فارسی: زردپره مزرعه
suomi: Harmaasirkku
føroyskt: Kornspurvur
Nordfriisk: Kurnsparag
français: Bruant proyer
Gaeilge: Gealóg bhuachair
galego: Trigueirón
עברית: גבתון עפרוני
magyar: Sordély
հայերեն: Կորեկնուկ
italiano: Strillozzo
ქართული: მეფეტვია
lietuvių: Pilkoji starta
македонски: Голема стрнарка
Nederlands: Grauwe gors
norsk nynorsk: Kornsporv
norsk: Kornspurv
polski: Potrzeszcz
português: Trigueirão
română: Presură sură
русский: Просянка
svenska: Kornsparv
Türkçe: Tarla kiraz kuşu
українська: Просянка
中文: 黍鹀

The corn bunting (Emberiza calandra) is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a group now separated by most modern authors from the finches, Fringillidae. This is a large bunting with heavily streaked buff-brown plumage. The sexes are similar but the male is slightly larger than the female. Its range extends from Western Europe and North Africa across to northwestern China.


The corn bunting was formally described by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae and retains its original binomial name of Emberiza calandra.[2] The type locality is Sweden.[3] The genus name Emberiza is from Old German Embritz, a bunting. The specific calandra is from Ancient Greek kalandros, the calandra lark.[4] The corn bunting has sometimes been placed in its own monotypic genus Miliaria.[5][6]

Two subspecies are recognised:[7]

E. c. calandra Linnaeus, 1758 – northwest Africa, Canary Islands and Europe to Turkey, the Caucasus and north Iran
E. c. buturlini Johansen, HE, 1907 – Middle East to northwest China

In Turkey

This is an unusual bunting because the plumages of the sexes are similar in appearance, though the male is approximately 20% larger than the female. This large bulky bunting is 16–19 cm long, with a conspicuously dark eye and yellowish mandibles. Males lack any showy colours, especially on the head, which is otherwise typical of genus Emberiza. Both sexes look something like larks, being streaked grey-brown above with whitish underparts. The underparts are streaked over the flanks and breast, and the streaking forms gorget around the throat. The lesser wing coverts are distinctively dark and white-tipped. The tail is plain brown.[8]

The song of the male is a repetitive metallic sound, usually likened to jangling keys, which is given from a low bush, fence post or telephone wires.
Distribution and habitat

It breeds across southern and central Europe, north Africa and Asia across to Kazakhstan. It is mainly resident, but some birds from colder regions of central Europe and Asia migrate southwards in winter.

The corn bunting is a bird of open country with trees, such as farmland and weedy wasteland. It has declined greatly in north-west Europe due to intensive agricultural practices depriving it of its food supply of weed seeds and insects, the latter especially vital when feeding the young. It has recently become extinct in Wales and Ireland, where it was previously common.
Behaviour and ecology
Food and feeding

Its natural food consists mainly of seeds but also includes insects such as crickets, especially when feeding young.
Eggs, Muséum de Toulouse

Males defend territories in the breeding season and can be polygynous, with up to three females per breeding male. The population sex ratio is generally 1:1, which means some males remain unmated during a season. Males play only a small role in parental care; they are not involved in nest building or incubation, and only feed the chicks when they are over half grown.

The nest is made of grass, lined with hair or fine grass, and is usually built on the ground. Average clutch size is four, but commonly varies from three to five, occasionally six.
Status and conservation

In England, the government's environmental organisation Natural England offers grants towards implementing measures to conserve this species, under the environmental stewardship scheme.[9]

BirdLife International (2019). "Emberiza calandra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T22721020A155499724. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T22721020A155499724.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. pp. 176–177.
Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, ed. (1970). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 13. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 6.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. pp. 84, 145. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Cramp & Perrins 1994, p. 323.
Lepage, Denis. "Corn bunting". Avibase - The World Bird Database. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (2020). "Sylviid babblers, parrotbills, white-eyes". IOC World Bird List Version 10.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
"Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra". Bird Field Guide. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.

Natural England Environmental Stewardship Scheme webpages


Cramp, Stanley; Perrins, C.M., eds. (1994). "Miliaria calandra Corn Bunting". Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. IX: Buntings and New World Warblers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 323–338. ISBN 978-0-19-854843-0.

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