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Eophona personata

Eophona personata(*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Fringillidae
Subfamilia: Carduelinae
Genus: Eophona
Species: Eophona personata

Eophona personata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1848)
Vernacular names
español: Picogordo japonés
français: Gros-bec masqué
日本語: イカル

The Japanese grosbeak (Eophona personata) or Ikaru is a finch native to the East Palearctic. It is also sometimes referred to as the Japanese or masked hawfinch due to superficial similarities to the well-known Eurasian species.
Eophona personata
Eophona personata personata MHNT

This is a large finch, with a reported weight of 80 g (2.8 oz) (for a single male) and a length of 18 to 23 cm (7.1 to 9.1 in). Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 10.2 to 11.7 cm (4.0 to 4.6 in), the tail is 8.3 to 9.5 cm (3.3 to 3.7 in) and the culmen is 2.1 to 2.6 cm (0.83 to 1.02 in). The signature feature of the Japanese grosbeak is its large, pointed bright yellow bill. The adult grosbeak has a large black marking extending from the nape to the chin and ear-coverts to the neck. The side of the neck is a contrasting pale whitish grey. The bird's underside is a more dull grey. The back is greyish-brown while the flanks are washed with a gingery or tawny-brown colour. The wings and tail are black but for a white patch on the inner-coverts and band of white in the middle of the primaries, which is visible in flight. Juveniles are a duller grey overall with no black on head. The subspecies, E. p. magnostris is slightly larger than the nominate race. It is also generally paler in tone with a smaller white patch the on primaries.

Among the vocalizations issued by Japanese grosbeaks include a short but hard tak tak note given in flight. The song of these birds consists of a series of four flutey whistles.

The alternate subspecies (E. p. magnostris) is completely migratory, breeding around the Amur, Ural and Manchurian regions and then wintering down in Hebei and Beijing, uncommonly ranging south towards North Korea. The nominate race occurs in Japan from Hokkaido to Kyushu and is not as seasonally migratory but does wander considerably during winter, largely in pursuit of food sources. The Japanese grosbeak is locally common, occasionally being abundant around prime feeding areas. It occurs in deciduous or mixed forests. More commonly, it is a bird of valleys rather than hillsides. This species also turns up in woods and groves of oak and birch and well-wooded parks and gardens. The species may winter on the edge of cultivated areas. The Japanese grosbeak usually occurs in pairs or small flocks. Behaviourally, it can be deceptively secretive, often staying hidden in foliage near the tree canopy. However, its location may regularly be betrayed by its voice. Mostly, the grosbeak feeds on variety of seeds and insects. During winter, they mainly live on cedar nuts, but also will feed on birch seeds and berries. During the summer, they become largely insectivorous and regularly eat caterpillars and beetles.

Finches and Sparrows by Peter Clement. Princeton University Press (1999). ISBN 978-0691048789.

BirdLife International (2018). "Eophona personata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22720687A132003504. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22720687A132003504.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.

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