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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Parvordo: Corvida
Superfamilia: Meliphagoidea

Familia: Meliphagidae
Genus: Moho
Species: †M. apicalis – †M. bishopi – †M. braccatus – †M. nobilis

Moho Lesson, 1830: 302

Lesson, R.P. 1830–1831. Traité d'ornithologie, ou, Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d'oiseaux : ouvrage entièrement neuf, formant le catalogue le plus complet des espèces réunies dans les collections publiques de la France. F. G. Levrault, Paris. Vol. 1: pp. i–xxxii, 1–659. BHL Reference page. [original description: p. 302]

Moho is a genus of extinct birds in the Hawaiian bird family, Mohoidae, that were endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Members of the genus are known as ʻōʻō in the Hawaiian language. Their plumage was generally striking glossy black; some species had yellowish axillary tufts and other black outer feathers. Most of these species became extinct by habitat loss and by extensive hunting because their plumage was used for the creation of precious ʻaʻahu aliʻi (robes) and ʻahu ʻula (capes) for aliʻi (Hawaiian nobility).[3][4] The Kauaʻi ʻōʻō was the last species of this genus to become extinct, probably a victim of avian malaria.[5]

Until recently, the birds in this genus were thought to belong to the family Meliphagidae (honeyeaters) because they looked and acted so similar to members of that family, including many morphological details. A 2008 study argued, on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of DNA from museum specimens, that the genera Moho and Chaetoptila do not belong to the Meliphagidae but instead belong to a group that includes the waxwings and the palmchat; they appear especially close to the silky-flycatchers. The authors proposed a family, Mohoidae, for these two extinct genera.[6]

The album O'o by jazz composer John Zorn, released in 2009, is named after these birds.

The following species belong to this genus (in addition, subfossil remains of a species are known from Maui and known in literature as the Maui ʻōʻō, Moho sp.):

Image Common name Scientific name Extinct since
Moho apicalis-Keulemans.jpg Oʻahu ʻōʻō Moho apicalis c. 1837
Moho-bishopi.jpg Bishop's ʻōʻō
or Molokaʻi ʻōʻō
Moho bishopi c. 1904
Moho nobilis-Keulemans.jpg Hawaiʻi ʻōʻō Moho nobilis c. 1934
Kauaioo.jpg Kauaʻi ʻōʻō Moho braccatus c. 1987


Bryan, E.J., Jr.; Greenway, J.C., Jr. (1944). "Contributions to the Ornithology of the Hawaiian Islands". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College. 94 (2): 137.
Paynter, Raymond A., Jr., ed. (1967). "Moho Lesson". Check-List of Birds of the World. 12. Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 424.
Flannery, Tim; Peter Schouten (2001). A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals. Atlantic Monthly Press. pp. 30, 110. ISBN 978-0-87113-797-5.
Ratzel, Friedrich (1896). "The History of Mankind". London: MacMillan. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
Fuller, Errol (2001). Extinct Birds. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press, Comstock Publishing. pp. 329–337. ISBN 978-0-8014-3954-4.

Fleischer, Robert C.; James, Helen F.; Olson, Storrs L. (2008). "Convergent Evolution of Hawaiian and Australo-Pacific Honeyeaters from Distant Songbird Ancestors". Current Biology. 18 (24): 1927–31. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.10.051. PMID 19084408.


Day, David (1981): The Doomsday Book of Animals
Greenway, James C. (1967): Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World

External links

Short description of the Moho species (French)
"Bishop's ʻŌʻō" (PDF). Hawaii’s Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. State of Hawaiʻi. 1 October 2005.
"Kauaʻi ʻŌʻō" (PDF). Hawaii’s Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. State of Hawaiʻi. 1 October 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2011.
Naturalis - Hawaiʻi ʻŌʻō

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