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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Strigiformes

Familia: Strigidae
Subfamilia: Striginae
Genus: Otus
Species: Otus angelinae

Otus angelinae (Finsch, 1912)

Ornithologische Monatsberichte 20 p. 156 BHL

Vernacular names
čeština: Výreček jávský
English: Javan Scops Owl
español: Autillo de Java

The Javan scops owl (Otus angelinae) is a small species of owl living mainly in western Java's high volcanos; local people refer to the owl as Celepuk Jawa.[3] Like most owls, this nocturnal bird also has a strong ability of silent flight.[4]


The average weight of this bird species is 75-90 grams with a body length of 160-180mm .[5] It has a small tail (63-69 mm) but large wings (135-149 mm) to accommodate its lengthy sliding distance.[3][4][5] The O.Angelinae has a light rusty-brown facial disc and prominent white brows that extend into ear tufts (of). Their hooked bill is 19.5-21.5mm long and varies in colour from dark straw-yellow to light greyish-yellow.[6][3] The upper part of their body is brown or rufous-brown, generally, with a rusty-buff hindneck-collar, whitish scapular stripe and remiges barred. The underpart of their body is white to pale buff with a pronounced black streak superimposed on light rufous vermiculations.[6] These brown feathers striated with black and white spots help them to better camouflage into the environment.[3] One can distinguish O.Angelinae from O.spilocephalus by noticing their more golden yellow or orange-yellow irides, prominent white eyebrows and ear tufts and tarsal feathering over the base of the toes.[4]
Systematics history

Javan Scops owl is possibly closest to the O.brookii.[6] Sometimes treated as a subspecies of O.brrookii or O.spilocephalus .[5] Currently defined as a separate species because of differences in their morphology and vocal habit.[6]

Distribution and habitat

These birds are endemic to West Java's highland forest.[7] Their tracks were discovered in the mountains of Mount Salak, Mount Pangrango, Mount Gede, and Mount Tangkuban Perahu; their appearances were also historically reported in the Papandayan and Ciremay areas.[8]

The Javan scops owl prefers montane forest with a well-developed understory at elevations ranging from 1500 to 2000m.[6] Their documented living elevation ranges from 900 to 2500 metres.[5] They preferred to dwell in the lower and middle canopy layers with a broader variety of tree species.[6]
Behaviour and Ecology
Diet and foraging

Insects like beetles, grasshoppers, crickets and mantis comprise the main portion of their diet.[6] There have been reports of tiny lizards and snakes being consumed occasionally.

Javan scops owl can deliver beetles (Coleoptera), mantids (Mantodea), stick insect (Phasmatodea), grasshoppers (Tettigoniidae, Orthoptera), and crickets (Gryllidae, Orthoptera) to feed the fledged offspring.[6] In terms of foraging, they use their keen vision and acute hearing to track down their prey and snare it from the trunk, foliage, or the ground.[4]
Sounds and vocal behaviour

While most scops owls usually make themselves known by their persistent vocalizations, the Javan Scops Owl is relatively quiet.[9] The bird's alarm calls are repeated explosive "poo-poo" with a 0.5-second delay and a pitch decrease between the two notes. This call will be repeated multiple times and often has a trembling quality.[10] The contact call of these birds is a hissing "tch-tschschsch".[7] The male bird can also produce a lower and soft comfort call like "wook-wook."[6]

Three family units with two newly fledged young were reported in previous literature, one in early February and the other two in early July.[7] Based on these observations, laying is predicted to occur in the second weeks of December and May, respectively, and the clutch size is most likely two eggs.[6]

The Javan scops owl is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Its activity range is limited to the forests of Java and Bali.[7] While it is considered rare by most authors, it is somewhat more common in the montane forest above 1,400m on Mount Salak. Its secretive behaviour and silent habits make the estimation of the bird population very difficult.[6] This species' worldwide population is estimated to be between 1500 and 1700 individuals, with a declining tendency owing to forest fragmentation.[8]

The population has been documented in two protected areas: Mount Halimun Salak National Park and Mount Gede Pangrango National Park. These protected areas encompass around 500 square kilometres of woodland with elevations of up to 3,000 metres.[7] There are also nature reserves on Mount Tangkuban Prahu and Ijen, where previous Javan scops owl's records exist.[7] Proposed future conservation actions on this species include conducting extensive nocturnal research (including mist-netting) on Java's highlands to determine the O.angelinae exact range and population status, as well as the creation of more protected montane area.[7]

BirdLife International (2016). "Otus angelinae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22688591A93201974. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22688591A93201974.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
"Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 2022-01-14.
Saraswati, Tyas Rini; Yuniwarti, Enny Yusuf Wachidah (2019). "Morphological description and functions of feathers to support Otus angelinae activities". Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorol. 7 (2): 92–96. doi:10.31893/2318-1265jabb.v7n2p92-96. ISSN 2318-1265. S2CID 202018742 – via JABB.
Weick, Friedhelm (2007). Owls (Strigiformes): Annotated and Illustrated Checklist. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 42. ISBN 978-3-540-39567-6.
Holt, Denver W.; Berkley, Regan; Deppe, Caroline; Enríquez, Paula L.; Petersen, Julie L.; Rangel Salazar, José Luis; Segars, Kelley P.; Wood, Kristin L.; Marks, Jeffrey S. (2020-03-04). "Javan Scops-Owl (Otus angelinae)". Birds of the World.
BirdLife International (2016). "Otus angelinae, Javan Scops-owl". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22688591A38013874.en.
Mittermeier, John C; Oliveros, Carl H (2014). "An avifaunal survey of three Javan volcanoes--Gn Salak, Gn Slamet and the Ijen highlands". Birding ASIA. 22: 91–100 – via ResearchGate.
Widodo, Wahyu (1999). "Rediscovery of the Flores Scops Owl Otus alfredi on Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, and reaffirmation of its specific status". Forktail. 15: 15–23.

"Javan Scops-Owl - eBird". Retrieved 2021-11-13.

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