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Pluvialis apricaria

Pluvialis apricaria (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Charadriiformes
Subordo: Charadrii

Familia: Charadriidae
Genus: Pluvialis
Species: Pluvialis apricaria

Pluvialis apricaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

Charadrius apricarius (protonym)
Charadrius pluvialis Linnaeus, 1758
Pluvialis aurea Brisson, 1760


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 150. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: قطقاط ذهبي أوروبي
беларуская (тарашкевіца): Залацісты сявец
беларуская: Залацісты сявец
български: Златиста булка
brezhoneg: Morlivid-lann
català: Daurada grossa
čeština: Kulík zlatý
Cymraeg: Cwtiad aur
dansk: Hjejle
Deutsch: Goldregenpfeifer

Ελληνικά : Βροχοπούλι (Ευρωπαϊκό)

English: European Golden Plover
Esperanto: Eŭropa orpluvio
español: Chorlito dorado común
eesti: Rüüt
euskara: Urre-txirri arrunt
فارسی: سلیم طلایی اروپایی
suomi: Kapustarinta
føroyskt: Lógv
Nordfriisk: Hiasluuper
français: Pluvier doré
Frysk: Wilster
galego: Píllara dourada
magyar: Aranylile
íslenska: Heiðlóa
italiano: Piviere dorato
日本語: ヨーロッパムナグロ
қазақша: Алтынжон татрең
lietuvių: Dirvinis sėjikas
latviešu: Dzeltenais tārtiņš
македонски: Златно блатарче
Nederlands: Goudplevier
norsk nynorsk: Heilo
norsk: Heilo
polski: Siewka złota
پنجابی: یورپی سنہری پلوور
português: Tarambola-dourada
русский: Золотистая ржанка
slovenčina: Kulík zlatý
svenska: Ljungpipare
Türkçe: Altın yağmurcun
українська: Сивка звичайна
vèneto: Pivier

The European golden plover (Pluvialis apricaria), also known as the European golden-plover, Eurasian golden plover, or just the golden plover within Europe, is a largish plover. This species is similar to two other golden plovers: the American golden plover, Pluvialis dominica, and Pacific golden plover, Pluvialis fulva, which are both smaller, slimmer and relatively longer-legged than European golden plover, and both have grey rather than white axillary feathers (only properly visible in flight).


The European golden plover was formally described by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae. He placed it with the other plovers in the genus Charadrius and coined the binomial name Charadrius apricarius.[2] The species is now placed in the genus Pluvialis that was introduced in 1760 by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson.[3][4] The genus name is Latin and means "relating to rain", from pluvia, "rain". It was believed that golden plovers flocked when rain was imminent.[5] The species name apricaria is Latin and means "to bask in the sun".[6] The European golden plover is monotypic: no subspecies are recognised.[4]
A large flock in Ystad/Sweden.
In Iceland
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

The European golden plover is quite thickset, with its wings only being slightly longer than its tail. Its most distinct feature is a white "s"-shaped band stretching from its forehead to its flanks.[7]
Distribution and habitat

The European golden plover tends to breed in the Arctic tundra and other palearctic areas, ranging as far west as Iceland, where they are called Heiðlóa, and as far east as central Siberia.[7] It tends to gather in large flocks and winter in open areas, agricultural plains, ploughed land, and short meadows, ranging from Europe to North Africa.[8][9]

In the United Kingdom, golden plover chicks rely on Tipulidae for feeding, while in Sweden Bibionidae are more important.[10]
Behaviour and ecology
European golden plover call
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The European golden plover's call is a monosyllabic, slightly descending, melancholic "tuu".[7][9]

Its flight action is rapid and powerful, with regular wingbeats.[8]
In culture

The European golden plover spends summers in Iceland, and in Icelandic folklore, the appearance of the first plover in the country means that spring has arrived.[11] The Icelandic media always covers the first plover sighting, which in 2017, took place on March 27.[12] In 2020, the first golden plover was sighted on March 16.[13]
Origin of Guinness World Records

On 10 November 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver, then the managing director of the Guinness Breweries,[14] went on a shooting party in the North Slob, by the River Slaney in County Wexford, Ireland. After missing a shot at a Eurasian golden plover, he became involved in an argument over which was the fastest game bird in Europe, the golden plover or the red grouse (the former being correct).[15] That evening at Castlebridge House, he realised that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe's fastest game bird.[16][17] Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland, but there was no book in the world with which to settle arguments about records. He realised then that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove popular.[18] A Guinness employee told Sir Hugh of two twin brothers, Norris and Ross McWhirter, who had opened a fact checking agency in London. Sir Hugh interviewed the brothers and, impressed by their prodigious knowledge, commissioned the book. Later, he published the first Guinness World Records which became a best seller within months.[19]

The European golden plover is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

BirdLife International (2016). "Pluvialis apricaria". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22693727A86551440. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22693727A86551440.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. pp. 150–151.
Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie, ou, Méthode Contenant la Division des Oiseaux en Ordres, Sections, Genres, Especes & leurs Variétés (in French and Latin). Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. Vol. 1, p. 46, Vol. 5, p. 42.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2021). "Buttonquail, thick-knees, sheathbills, plovers, oystercatchers, stilts, painted-snipes, jacanas, Plains-wanderer, seedsnipes". IOC World Bird List Version 11.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
"London". CiteSeerX
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 57, 311. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Frédéric Jiguet, Aurélien Audevard (2017). Birds of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East: A Photographic Guide (illustrated ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 155. ISBN 9780691172439.
Mark Beaman, Steve Madge (2010). The Handbook of Bird Identification: For Europe and the Western Palearctic (illustrated ed.). A&C Black. p. 309. ISBN 9781408135235.
Jon Lloyd Dunn, Jonathan K. Alderfer, ed. (2006). National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America, National Geographic Field Guide to Birds Series (illustrated ed.). National Geographic Books. p. 154. ISBN 9780792253143.
Machín, P.; Fernández-Elipe, J.; Flinks, H.; Laso, M.; Aguirre, J. I.; Klaassen, R. H. G. (2017). "Habitat selection, diet and food availability of European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria chicks in Swedish Lapland". Ibis. 159 (3): 657–672. doi:10.1111/ibi.12479.
Jóhannsson, K. (27 March 2017). "The Golden Plover has arrived, indicating spring in Iceland". Icenews. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
"Spring has arrived in Iceland, according to folklore". Iceland Monitor. 27 March 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
Poppy Askham (16 March 2020). "Rejoice, Spring Has Finally Sprung: The Lóa Lands In Iceland". The Reykjavik Grapevine. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
"The History of the Book". Guinness Record Book Collecting. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
Davenport, Fionn (2010). Ireland. Lonely Planet. p. 193. ISBN 9781742203508.
"Early history of Guinness World Records". 2005. p. 2. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007.
Cavendish, Richard (August 2005). "The Guinness Book of Records was first published on August 27th, 1955". History Today. 55 (8).
Guinness World Records 2005 (50th Anniversary ed.). Guinness. 2004. p. 6. ISBN 978-1892051226.
"The Guinness Book of Records, Witness - BBC World Service".

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