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Pycnonotus bimaculatus

Pycnonotus bimaculatus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Sylvioidea

Familia: Pycnonotidae
Genus: Pycnonotus
Species: Pycnonotus bimaculatus
Subspecies: P. b. bimaculatus – P. b. tenggerensis

Synonym: P. b. barat – included in nominal.


Pycnonotus bimaculatus (Horsfield, 1821)

Turdus bimaculatus (protonym)


Transactions of the Linnean Society of London (1) 13 p. 147 BHL

Vernacular names
English: Orange-spotted Bulbul

The orange-spotted bulbul (Pycnonotus bimaculatus) is a species of songbird in the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is endemic to Java, Bali and Sumatra.

It favors forest edges and open meadows in montane forests.[2]

Taxonomy and systematics

The orange-spotted bulbul was originally described in the genus Turdus by Thomas Horsfield in 1821. Until 2016, the Aceh bulbul (Pycnonotus snouckaerti) was considered as a subspecies of the orange-spotted bulbul until split by the IOC.[3] Most other authorities have not yet recognized this split.[4]

Two subspecies are recognized:[5]

P. b. bimaculatus – (Horsfield, 1821): Found on south-western Sumatra, western and central Java
P. b. tenggerensis – (van Oort, 1911): Found on eastern Java and Bali


Up to 20 cm long. It is a dark-colored and active bulbul with a rounded tail.

It is a noisy bird, giving out a variety of harsh and loud calls and songs.
Behaviour and ecology

It is a frugivore.

It breeds throughout the year. Nesting occurs year-round, peaking in May. Nests are robust and cup-shaped.

BirdLife International (2016). "Pycnonotus bimaculatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T103828414A94344693. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T103828414A94344693.en. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
MacKinnon, John; Karen Phillips (1993). A Field Guide to the Birds of Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 273.
"Species Updates « IOC World Bird List". Retrieved 2017-03-29.
"Pycnonotus snouckaerti - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-29.
"Bulbuls « IOC World Bird List". Retrieved 2017-03-28.

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