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Spizaetus tyrannus

Spizaetus tyrannus (

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Accipitriformes

Familia: Accipitridae
Subfamilia: Aquilinae
Genus: Spizaetus
Species: Spizaetus tyrannus
Subspecies: S. t. serus - S. t. tyrannus

Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied-Neuwied, 1820)

Reise nach Brasilien in den Jahren 1815 bis 1817. 1 p. 360

Vernacular names
čeština: Orel černý
English: Black Hawk-Eagle
español: Águila-azor negra
polski: Wojownik czarny
português: Gavião-pega-macaco

The black hawk-eagle (Spizaetus tyrannus), also known as the tyrant hawk-eagle,[3] is a species of eagle found from central Mexico through Central America[4] into the south of Brazil to Colombia, eastern Peru, and as far as northern Argentina.[5] There are two known subspecies, S.t. tyrannus, which is found in Southeastern Brazil and Northeastern Argentina, and the slightly smaller S. t. serus, which can be found elsewhere throughout the species' range.[6] Its preferred habitats include humid and moist forests close to rivers, and several types of woodland.[7] It is uncommon to fairly common throughout most of its range. Its closest relative is the ornate hawk-eagle, which is similar in size, appearance and behavior but lives at lower elevations.

Ailigandí area, Panama
A captive adult black hawk-eagle.

The black hawk-eagle is 58–70 cm (23–28 in) long and weighs about 900–1,300 grams (2-2.9 lbs). It has black plumage with varying patterns on its wings and body, and white speckling in places. It has barred wings, slightly elliptical in shape, and a long, narrow tail which is rarely fanned. The four grey bars on the tail are distinctive to the black hawk-eagle, as is the white line seen slightly above the bird's eye. While flying, the broadness and shortness of the wings become apparent.[8] While in flight, the bird's tail is typically kept closed.[5][7]

Though light and small compared to other eagles, this bird is a powerful predator that frequently hunts relatively large prey. It mainly eats large rodents (such as squirrels),[9] opossums and monkeys (such as howler monkeys,[10]marmosets and squirrel monkeys),[9] as well as, occasionally, bats, birds (even as small as the social flycatcher)[9] and some reptiles (such as large lizards, including iguanas,[9] and snakes).[4][11][10] Its popular name in Brazil is "Gavião-pega-macaco", which means "monkey-catching hawk". The birds it takes can be quite large, such as toucans, macaws, guans[9] and chachalacas.[7]
Wild juvenile black hawk-eagle.

The black hawk-eagle's breeding behaviour is little known. In a study carried out in Guatemala by The Peregrine Fund, four nests were documented. The average nest height was 25.5m and the nests were all built in lateral limbs away from the center of the tree. All known breeding pairs, both in the wild and in captivity, have laid single egg clutches and the estimating incubation period is 44 days.[6]

BirdLife International (2020). "Spizaetus tyrannus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T22696193A168672294. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T22696193A168672294.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Gill F, D Donsker & P Rasmussen (Eds). 2020. IOC World Bird List (v10.2). doi : 10.14344/IOC.ML.10.2.
Tyrant Hawk-eagle Retrieved on 14 August 2007
"Black Hawk-Eagles in Panama | Whitehawk Birding Blog". 2020-05-07. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
"Black Hawk-Eagle – Spizaetus tyrannus". Retrieved 14 August 2007.
Whitacre, David F. "Neotropical Birds of Prey- Black Hawk-eagle". pp. 185–202.
"Black Hawk-Eagle". Retrieved 14 August 2007.
Birds of Venezuela by Steve Hilty. Princeton University Press, 2003
"Black Hawk-eagle | the Peregrine Fund".[bare URL PDF]
"Spizaetus tyrannus". Retrieved 2020-06-28.

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