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Stercorarius parasiticus

Stercorarius parasiticus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Charadriiformes
Subordo: Lari

Familia: Stercorariidae
Genus: Stercorarius
Species: Stercorarius parasiticus

Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Larus parasiticus (protonym)

Stercorarius parasiticus egg

Stercorarius parasiticus egg


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 136–137. Reference page.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Arktiese roofmeeu
العربية: كركر قطبي
asturianu: Cágalu Articu
беларуская: Паморнік караткахвосты
български: Среден морелетник
brezhoneg: Sparfell-vor Arktika
català: Paràsit cuapunxegut
čeština: Chaluha příživná
Cymraeg: Sgiwen y Gogledd
dansk: Almindelig kjove
Deutsch: Schmarotzerraubmöwe
Ελληνικά: Γερακοληστόγλαρος
English: Arctic Skua
Esperanto: Parazita rabmevo
español: Escúa ártica
eesti: Söödikänn
euskara: Marikoi isatslabur
فارسی: قاپوی قطب شمال
suomi: Merikihu
føroyskt: Kjógvi
français: Labbe parasite
Frysk: lytse skraits
Gaeilge: Meirleach Artach
Gàidhlig: Fàsgadair
galego: Palleira parasita
Gaelg: Maarliagh marrey
עברית: חמסן טפיל
hrvatski: Kratkorepi pomornik
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lab parazit
magyar: Ékfarkú halfarkas
հայերեն: Որոր ծովահեն կարճապոչ
Bahasa Indonesia: Camar-kejar Arktika
íslenska: Kjói
italiano: Labbo
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: Ishungak
日本語: クロトウゾクカモメ
ქართული: ვიწროკუდა თოლია-მეკობრე
қазақша: Қысқақұйрық құрақтұмсық
kalaallisut: Ishungak
한국어: 북극도둑갈매기
lietuvių: Smailiauodegis plėšikas
latviešu: Īsastes klijjaija
македонски: Краткоопашест галеб
മലയാളം: ആർട്ടിക് സ്കൂവ
монгол: Бэсрэг хулгайч цахлай
Bahasa Melayu: Burung Camar Kejar Arktik
Malti: Ċiefa ta' l-Arktiku
Plattdüütsch: Jan Dreckvagel
Nederlands: Kleine jager
norsk nynorsk: Tjuvjo
norsk: Tyvjo
Diné bizaad: Náhookǫsdę́ę́ʼ łóóʼyiniʼįįhí
polski: Wydrzyk ostrosterny
پنجابی: پیراسائٹک جیگر
português do Brasil: Mandrião-parasítico
português: Moleiro-parasítico
rumantsch: Muetta parasita
русский: Короткохвостый поморник
саха тыла: Курахал
davvisámegiella: Háskil
slovenčina: Pomorník príživný
slovenščina: Bodičasta govnačka
shqip: Pulëbardha parazite
српски / srpski: Kratkorepi pomornik - Краткорепи поморник
svenska: Kustlabb
Kiswahili: Skua wa Akitiki
ไทย: นกสกัวขั้วโลกเหนือ
Türkçe: Kutup korsan martısı
українська: Поморник короткохвостий
中文: 短尾賊鷗

The parasitic jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus), also known as the Arctic skua, Arctic jaeger or parasitic skua, is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. The word "jaeger" is derived from the German word Jäger, meaning "hunter".[2] The English "skua" comes from the Faroese name skúgvur [ˈskɪkvʊər] for the great skua, with the island of Skúvoy known for its colony of that bird. The general Faroese term for skuas is kjógvi [ˈtʃɛkvə].[3] The genus name Stercorarius is Latin and means "of dung"; the food disgorged by other birds when pursued by skuas was once thought to be excrement. The specific parasiticus is from Latin and means "parasitic".[4]

Dark morph (Iceland)

Identification is complicated by similarities to long-tailed jaeger and pomarine jaeger, and the existence of three colour morphs. Small for a skua, the parasitic jaeger measures 41–48 cm (16–19 in) in length, 107–125 cm (42–49 in) in wingspan and weighs 300–650 g (11 oz – 1 lb 7 oz).[5][6] The tail streamer of the breeding adult accounts for about 7 cm (3 in) of their length. Light-morph adults have a brown back, mainly white underparts and dark primary wing feathers with a white "flash". The head and neck are yellowish-white with a black cap and there is a pointed central tail projection. Dark-morph adults are dark brown, and intermediate-phase birds are dark with somewhat paler underparts, head and neck. All morphs have the white wing flash.
An immature parasitic jaeger

Identification of juveniles is even more problematic, and it is difficult to separate parasitic jaegers from long-tailed jaegers. Parasitic jaegers are bulkier, shorter-winged, and less tern-like than long-tailed jaegers. They are usually warmer toned, with browner shades, rather than grey. However, they show the same wide range of plumage variation. The flight is more falcon-like.

The typical call of these birds is a nasal mewing sound, repeated a few times in display. Their alarm call is a shorter sound.
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

This species breeds in the north of Eurasia and North America, with significant populations as far south as northern Scotland. It nests on dry tundra, higher fells and islands, laying up to four olive-brown eggs. It is usually silent except for mewing and wailing notes while on the breeding grounds. Like other skuas, it will fly at the head of a human or fox approaching its nest. Although it cannot inflict serious damage, it is a frightening and painful experience. It is a migrant, wintering at sea in the tropics and southern oceans.

In the British Isles, they breed in Shetland and Orkney, the Outer Hebrides, Sutherland, Caithness, and some islands in Argyll.

This bird will feed on rodents, insects, eggs, chicks and small birds in the breeding season, but the majority of its diet (especially in winter and on migration) is made up of food that it acquires by robbing other birds (primarily gulls and terns) of their catches in an act called kleptoparasitism.
Conservation status

In 2018, Stercorarius parasiticus was regionally uplisted to Endangered in Iceland, from Least Concern in 2000, after their numbers declined drastically in the early 2000s.[7]

BirdLife International (2018). "Stercorarius parasiticus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22694245A132535550. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22694245A132535550.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
"Jaeger". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
"Skua". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 292, 365. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
"Parasitic jaeger". 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-11-06. Retrieved 2011-10-20.
Dunning, John B. Jr., ed. (1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5. Kristinn Haukur Skarphéðinsson, "Kjói (Stercorarius parasiticus)," Icelandic Institute of Natural History, last updated October 2018.

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