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Streptopelia decaocto

Streptopelia decaocto (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Columbimorphae
Ordo: Columbiformes

Familia: Columbidae
Subfamilia: Columbinae
Genus: Streptopelia
Species: Streptopelia decaocto

Streptopelia decaocto (Frivaldszky, 1838)

Columba risoria decaocto (protonym)


Kaarpaataljai Magyar Tudomaanyos Társaság Evkönyvi 3 (3): 183, t.VIII.

Vernacular names
العربية: يمامة مطوقة أوراسية
azərbaycanca: Yaxalıqlı qurqur
беларуская: Туркаўка кольчатая
български: Гугутка
brezhoneg: Turzhunell durk
català: Tórtora turca
čeština: Hrdlička zahradní
Cymraeg: Turtur Dorchog
dansk: Tyrkerdue
Deutsch: Türkentaube
Ελληνικά: Δεκαοχτούρα
English: Eurasian Collared Dove
Esperanto: Turka turto
español: Tórtola turca
eesti: Kaelus-turteltuvi
euskara: Turkiar usapal
estremeñu: Rola
فارسی: یاکریم
suomi: Turkinkyyhky
føroyskt: Turkadúgva
français: Tourterelle turque
Gaeilge: Fearán baicdhubh
galego: Rula turca
ગુજરાતી: હોલો
עברית: תור צווארון
hrvatski: Gugutka
magyar: Balkáni gerle
հայերեն: Օղակավոր տատրակ
íslenska: Tyrkjadúfa
italiano: Tortora dal collare orientale
日本語: シラコバト
ქართული: საყელოიანი გვრიტი
қазақша: Сақиналы түркептер
kurdî: Tivîlk
lietuvių: Pietinis purplelis
latviešu: Gredzenūbele
македонски: Гугутка
മലയാളം: പൊട്ടൻ ചെങ്ങാലി
кырык мары: Шӓргӓшӓн тыргӓдӹ
Bahasa Melayu: Burung Putaran
नेपाली: कण्ठे ढुकुर
Nederlands: Turkse tortel
norsk nynorsk: Tyrkardue
norsk: Tyrkerdue
Diné bizaad: Tó wónaanídę́ę́ʼ hasbídí bizééjíjinígíí
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਗਾਨੀ ਵਾਲੀ ਘੁੱਗੀ
polski: Sierpówka
پنجابی: کالروالی گھُگی
português: Rola-turca
română: Guguştiuc
русский: Кольчатая горлица
slovenčina: Hrdlička záhradná
slovenščina: Turška grlica
shqip: Kumria
српски / srpski: Гугутка
svenska: Turkduva
தமிழ்: கள்ளிப்புறா
Türkçe: Kumru
українська: Горлиця садова
vèneto: Tórtora dal colarin
Zeêuws: Turkse tortel
中文: 灰斑鸠

The Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) is a dove species native to Europe and Asia; it was introduced to Japan, North America and islands in the Caribbean. Because of its vast global range and increasing population trend, it has been listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2014.[1]


Columba decaocto was the scientific name proposed by the Hungarian naturalist Imre Frivaldszky in 1838 who described a Eurasian collared dove.[2] The type locality is Plovdiv in Bulgaria.[3] It is now placed in genus Streptopelia that was introduced in 1855 by the French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte.[4][5]

The Burmese collared dove (S. xanthocycla) was formerly considered a subspecies of the Eurasian collared dove, but was split as a distinct species by the IOC in 2021.[6][7][8] Two other subspecies were formerly sometimes accepted, S. d. stoliczkae from Turkestan in central Asia and S. d. intercedens from southern India and Sri Lanka.[9] They are now considered junior synonyms of the nominate subspecies (S. d. decaocto).[10]

The Eurasian collared dove is closely related to the Sunda collared dove of Southeast Asia and the African collared dove of Sub-Saharan Africa, forming a superspecies with these.[10] Identification from the African collared dove is very difficult with silent birds, with the African species being marginally smaller and paler, but the calls are very distinct, a soft purring in the African collared dove quite unlike the Eurasian collared dove's cooing.[11]

The generic name is from the Ancient Greek streptos meaning "collar" and peleia meaning "dove"; the specific epithet is Greek for "eighteen".[12] The number comes from a Greek myth. A maid was unhappy that she was only paid 18 pieces a year and begged the gods to let the world know how little she was rewarded by her mistress. Thereupon Zeus created this dove that has called out "Deca-octo" ever since.[3][13]
A pair from Mangaon, Maharashtra, India
Mangaon, Maharashtra, India

It is a medium-sized dove, distinctly smaller than the wood pigeon, similar in length to a rock pigeon but slimmer and longer-tailed, and slightly larger than the related European turtle dove, with an average length of 32 cm (13 in)[14] from tip of beak to tip of tail, with a wingspan of 47–55 cm (19–22 in), and a weight of 125–240 g (4.4–8.5 oz). It is grey-buff to pinkish-grey overall, a little darker above than below, with a blue-grey underwing patch. The tail feathers are grey-buff above, and dark grey and tipped white below; the outer tail feathers are also tipped whitish above. It has a black half-collar edged with white on its nape from which it gets its name. The short legs are red and the bill is black. The iris is red, but from a distance the eyes appear to be black, as the pupil is relatively large and only a narrow rim of reddish-brown iris can be seen around the black pupil. The eye is surrounded by a small area of bare skin, which is either white or yellow. The two sexes are virtually indistinguishable; juveniles differ in having a poorly developed collar, and a brown iris.[11][9] The subspecies S. d. xanthocycla differs in having yellow rather than white eye-rings, darker grey on the head and the underparts a slightly darker pink.[8]

The song is a goo-GOO-goo. The Eurasian collared dove also makes a harsh loud screeching call lasting about two seconds, particularly in flight just before landing. A rough way to describe the screeching sound is a hah-hah.

Eurasian collared doves cooing in early spring are sometimes mistakenly reported as the calls of early-arriving common cuckoos and, as such, a mistaken sign of spring's return.[9]
Distribution and habitat
Juvenile before collar formation
Juvenile with early collar development

The Eurasian collared dove is not migratory, but is strongly dispersive. Over the last century, it has been one of the great colonisers of the bird world, travelling far beyond its native range to colonise colder countries, becoming a permanent resident in several of them. Its original range at the end of the 19th century was warm temperate and subtropical Asia from Turkey east to southern China and south through India to Sri Lanka. In 1838 it was reported in Bulgaria, but not until the 20th century did it expand across Europe, appearing in parts of the Balkans between 1900 and 1920, and then spreading rapidly northwest, reaching Germany in 1945, Great Britain by 1953 (breeding for the first time in 1956), Ireland in 1959, and the Faroe Islands in the early 1970s. Subsequent spread was 'sideways' from this fast northwestern spread, reaching northeast to north of the Arctic Circle in Norway and east to the Ural Mountains in Russia, and southwest to the Canary Islands and northern Africa from Morocco to Egypt, by the end of the 20th century. In the east of its range, it has also spread northeast to most of central and northern China, and locally (probably introduced) in Japan.[11][15][9][10] It has also reached Iceland as a vagrant (41 records up to 2006), but has not colonised successfully there.[16]
Invasive status in North America

In 1974, fewer than 50 Eurasian collared doves escaped captivity in Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas.[17] From the Bahamas, the species spread to Florida,[18] and is now found in nearly every state in the U.S.[19] as well as in Mexico.[20] In Arkansas (the United States), the species was recorded first in 1989 and since then has grown in numbers and is now present in 42 of 75 counties in the state. It spread from the southeastern corner of the state in 1997 to the northwestern corner in five years, covering a distance of about 500 km (310 mi) at a rate of 100 km (62 mi) per year.[21] This is more than double the rate of 45 km (28 mi) per year observed in Europe.[22] As of 2012, few negative impacts have been demonstrated in Florida, where the species is most prolific.[23][24] However, the species is known as an aggressive competitor and there is concern that as populations continue to grow, native birds will be out-competed by the invaders.[23] However, one study found that Eurasian collared doves are not more aggressive or competitive than native mourning doves, despite similar dietary preferences.[25]
They can become hand-tame in urban areas - Szczecin, Poland

Population growth has ceased in areas where the species has long been established, such as Florida, and in these regions recent observations suggest the population is in decline.[26] The population is still growing exponentially in areas of more recent introduction: up to 2015, the Eurasian collared dove experienced a greater than 1.5% yearly population increase throughout nearly the entirety of its North American range.[27] Carrying capacities appear to be highest in areas with higher temperatures and intermediate levels of development, such as suburban areas and some agricultural areas.[28]

While the spread of disease to native species has not been recorded in a study, Eurasian collared doves are known carriers of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae as well as pigeon paramyxovirus type 1.[19][23] Both Trichomonas gallinae and pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 can spread to native birds via commingling at feeders and by consumption of doves by predators. Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 is an emergent disease and has the potential to affect domestic poultry, making the Eurasian collared dove a threat to not only native biodiversity, but a possible economic threat as well.[19]
Behaviour and ecology
Courtship at Kutch

Eurasian collared doves typically breed close to human habitation wherever food resources are abundant and there are trees for nesting; almost all nests are within 1 km (0.62 mi) of inhabited buildings. The female lays two white eggs in a stick nest, which she incubates during the night and which the male incubates during the day. Incubation lasts between 14 and 18 days, with the young fledging after 15 to 19 days. Breeding occurs throughout the year when abundant food is available, though only rarely in winter in areas with cold winters such as northeastern Europe. Three to four broods per year is common, although up to six broods in a year has been recorded.[9] Eurasian collared doves are a monogamous species, and share parental duties when caring for young.[29]
Near Chandigarh

The male's mating display is a ritual flight, which, as with many other pigeons, consists of a rapid, near-vertical climb to height followed by a long glide downward in a circle, with the wings held below the body in an inverted "V" shape. At all other times, flight is typically direct using fast and clipped wing beats and without use of gliding.
Food and feeding

The Eurasian collared dove is not wary and often feeds very close to human habitation, including visiting bird tables; the largest populations are typically found around farms where spilt grain is frequent around grain stores or where livestock are fed. It is a gregarious species and sizeable winter flocks will form where there are food supplies such as grain (its main food) as well as seeds, shoots and insects. Flocks most commonly number between 10 and 50, but flocks of up to 10,000 have been recorded.[9]
Eurasian collared dove near Chunni, Punjab.
Eurasian collared dove near Mohali.

BirdLife International (2019). "Streptopelia decaocto". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T22727811A154457750. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T22727811A154457750.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
Frivaldszky, I. (1838). "Balkány vidéki természettudományi utazás". Magyar Tudós Társaság Évkönyvei (in Hungarian). 3 (3): 156–184 [183–184, Plate 8].
Fisher, J. (1953). "The collared turtle dove in Europe" (PDF). British Birds. 46 (5): 153–181.
Bonaparte, C. L. (1855). "Coup d'oeil sur les pigeons (quatrième partie)". Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences (in French). 40: 15–24 [17].
Gill, F.; Donsker, D.; Rasmussen, P., eds. (2020). "Pigeons". IOC World Bird List Version 10.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
"Species Updates – IOC World Bird List". Retrieved 13 June 2021.
BirdLife International (2016). "Streptopelia xanthocycla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22727819A94962701.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N.; Kirwan, G.M.; Garcia, E.F.J. (2020). "Burmese Collared-dove (Streptopelia xanthocycla)". In del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
Cramp, S. (1985). "Streptopelia decaocto Collared Dove". Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: the birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 4: Terns to woodpeckers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 340−353. ISBN 978-0-19-857507-8.
Baptista, L. F.; Trail, P. W.; Horblit, H. M.; Boesman, P.; Garcia, E. F. J.; Kirwan, G. M. (1997). "Eurasian Collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto)". In del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. p. 137. ISBN 84-87334-22-9.
Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. (1998). "Streptopelia decaocto Collared Dove". The Birds of the Western Palearctic (Concise ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854099-X.
Jobling, J. A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 131, 367. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Naumann, J. F. (1837). "Ornithologische Reise nach und durch Ungarn". Archiv für Naturgeschichte (in German). 3 (1): 69–110 [107].
Campbell, D. (2000). "Collared Dove". The Encyclopedia of British Birds. Bath: Parragon. p. 95. ISBN 0752541595.
Hagemeijer, W. J. M.; Blair, M. J. (1997). The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds. London: Poyser. ISBN 0-85661-091-7.
Birding Iceland: Eurasian Collared Dove
Hengeveld, R. (1993). "What to Do about the North American Invasion by the Collared Dove?". Journal of Field Ornithology. 64 (4): 477–489. JSTOR 4513859.
Scheidt, SN; Hurlbert, AH (2014). "Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)". PLOS ONE. 9 (10): e111510. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9k1510S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111510. PMC 4213033. PMID 25354270.
Schuler, K.; Green, D.; Justice-Allen, A.; Jaffe, R.; Cunningham, M.; Thomas, N.; Spalding, M.; Ip, H. (2012). "Expansion of an Exotic Species and Concomitant Disease Outbreaks: Pigeon Paramyoxovirus in Free-Ranging Eurasian Collared Doves". EcoHealth. 9 (2): 163–170. doi:10.1007/s10393-012-0758-6. PMID 22476688. S2CID 25784149.
Almazán-Núñez, R. C. (2014). "Nuevos registros de la paloma turca (Streptopelia decaocto) en el estado de Guerrero, México". Acta Zoológica Mexicana. 30 (3): 701–706.
Fielder, J. M., R. Kannan, D. A. James, and J. C. Cunningham (2012). "Status, dispersal, and breeding biology of the exotic Eurasian Collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto) in Arkansas". Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. 66: 55–61.
Hengeveld, R. (1988). Mechanisms of biological invasions. Journal of Biogeography 15: 819–828.
Johnson, S.; Donaldson-Fortier, G. "Florida's Introduced Birds: Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)". University of Florida IFAS Extension. Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
Bonter, David N., Benjamin Zuckerberg, and Janis L. Dickinson. "Invasive Birds in a Novel Landscape: Habitat Associations and Effects on Established Species." Ecography 33 (2010): 494-502. Project Feeder Watch. Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
Poling, Trisha D., and Steven E. Hayslette (2006). "Dietary Overlap and Foraging Competition Between Mourning Doves and Eurasian Collared-Doves." Journal of Wildlife Management 70(4) : 998–1004.
"The 116th Christmas Bird Count Summary". National Audubon Society. 21 November 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
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Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Winkler, Hans; Oliveira, Rui F. (2003). "Comparative analysis of male androgen responsiveness to social environment in birds: the effects of mating system and paternal incubation" (PDF). Hormones and Behavior. 43 (4): 508–519. doi:10.1016/s0018-506x(03)00027-8. hdl:10400.12/1312. PMID 12788297. S2CID 5783792.

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