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Tangara arthus

Tangara arthus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Thraupidae
Genus: Tangara
Species: Tangara arthus

Group: T. a. arthus
Group: T. a. aurulenta – T. a. goodsoni – T. a. occidentalis – T. a. palmitae – T. a. sclateri
Group: T. a. pulchra – T. a. aequatorialis – T. a. sophiae


Tangara arthus Lesson, 1832

Type locality: Caracas, Venezuela.


Lesson, R.P. 1832–1835. Illustrations de zoologie, ou, Recueil de figures d'animaux peintes d'après nature. Paris: Arthus Bertrand. pl. I–LX + descriptive texts. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.41398 BHL Reference page. livr.3: text, pl.9

Vernacular names
مصرى: تناجر ذهبى
العربية: تناجر ذهبي
български: Златиста тангара
català: Tàngara daurada
Cymraeg: Tanagr euraidd
dansk: Guldtangar
Deutsch: Goldtangare
English: Golden Tanager
español: Tangara pechicastaña
français: Calliste à poitrine marron
magyar: Aranytangara
հայերեն: Ոսկե տանագրա
italiano: Tanagra dorata
日本語: キンイロフウキンチョウ
Nederlands: Goudtangare
norsk: Gulltanagar
русский: Золотая танагра
svenska: Guldtangara
українська: Золота танагра

The golden tanager (Tangara arthus) is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is widespread and often common in highland forests of the Andes (from Bolivia and northwards) and Venezuelan Coastal Range in north-western South America.

Its plumage is overall golden-yellow with black to the back, wings, tail and ear-coverts. Some subspecies are partially/largely brown below.

Taxonomy and systematics

The golden tanager was first described as Tangara Arthus by René Lesson in 1840 on the basis of a specimen from Caracas, Venezuela.[2][3] The generic name Tangara comes from the Tupí word tangara, meaning dancer. The specific name arthus is in honor of Arthus Bertrand, a French bookseller.[4] Golden tanager is the official common name designated by the International Ornithologists' Union (IOC).[5] Other names for the species include "chestnut-breasted tanager".[6]

The golden tanager is one of 27 species in the genus Tangara. Within the genus, it is part of a species group with the blue-whiskered tanager, green-and-gold tanager, emerald tanager, silver-throated tanager, saffron-crowned tanager, golden-eared tanager, and flame-faced tanager. In the group, it is sister to a clade formed by the emerald and silver-throated tanagers. This placement is supported by mitochondrial DNA evidence.[7] The following cladogram shows phylogenetic relationships within the species group based on the above study:[8]

Golden-eared tanager (Tangara chrysotis)

Saffron-crowned tanager (Tangara xanthocephala)

Blue-whiskered tanager (Tangara johannae)

Green-and-gold tanager (Tangara schrankii)

Flame-faced tanager (Tangara parzudakii)

Silver-throated tanager (Tangara icterocephala)

Emerald tanager (Tangara florida)

Golden tanager (Tangara arthus)


There are nine recognized subspecies of the golden tanager.[5] The subspecies are differentiated by differences in their appearance and their distribution.[7] All the subspecies excluding arthus are sometimes separated into a distinct species, Tangara aurulenta, on the basis of differences in plumage.[9]

T. a. arthus (Lesson, 1832): The nominate subspecies. It is found in the mountains of northern and western Venezuela.[7]
T. a. palmitae (Meyer de Schauensee, 1947): It is found on the western slope of the Andes in La Palmita, Santander, Colombia.[7]
T. a. sclateri (Lafresnaye, 1854): It is found in the Andes of eastern Colombia, and likely also in those of southern Táchira, Venezuela.[7]
T. a. aurulenta (Lafresnaye, 1843): It is found in Serranía del Perijá, Venezuela, and the western slope of the Andes in eastern Colombia.[7]
T. a. occidentalis Chapman, 1914: It is found on the western slope of the Andes in central Colombia and on both slopes in western Colombia.[7]
T. a. goodsoni Hartert, 1913: It is found on the western slope of the Andes in Ecuador, and likely also in northwestern Peru.[7]
T. a. aequatorialis (Taczanowski & Berlepsch, 1885): It is found on the eastern slope of the Andes in Ecuador and adjoining areas in northern Peru.[7]
T. a. pulchra (Tschudi, 1844): It is found on the eastern slope of the Andes from Amazonas to Junín in Peru.[7]
T. a. sophiae (Berlepsch, 1901): It is found on the eastern slope of the Andes from southeastern Peru to La Paz and Cochabamba in Bolivia.[7]

Distribution and habitat
Two birds eating a banana.
A pair of golden tanager feeding.

The golden tanager is found in the Venezuelan Coastal Range in Venezuela and in the Andes in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia at elevations of 700–2,500 m (2,300–8,200 ft), but is most common at elevations of 1,000–1,500 m (3,300–4,900 ft). It inhabits humid montane evergreen forest, as well as forest edges and nearby secondary growth.[7]

The nominate subspecies of the golden tanager is listed as being a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on the IUCN Red List because of its large range, relative commonness, and lack of a sufficiently rapid decline in population.[10] The other subspecies, which are considered to be a distinct species by the IUCN, are also listed as being of least concern for the above reasons.[11] However, the population of the golden tanager is decreasing, and it is threatened by habitat destruction.[10][11]

BirdLife International (2017). "Tangara arthus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T103849276A119485491. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103849276A119485491.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
Lesson, R. P. Illustrations de zoologie, ou, Recueil de figures d'animaux peintes d'après nature. Paris: Arthus Bertrand.
Field Museum of Natural History (1936). Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands in Field Museum of Natural History and including all species and subspecies known to occur in North America, Mexico, Central America, South America, the West Indies, and islands of the Caribbean Sea, the Galapagos Archipelago, and other islands which may properly be included on account of their faunal affinities. Vol. 13. Chicago.
Jobling, James A. (2010). Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 56, 379. ISBN 978-1-4081-3326-2.
"Tanagers and allies – IOC World Bird List". Retrieved 2021-09-07.
"Tangara arthus (Golden Tanager) - Avibase". Retrieved 2021-10-22.
Cameron, Jennifer Lauren; Burns, Kevin J. (2020-03-04), Billerman, Shawn M.; Keeney, Brooke K.; Rodewald, Paul G.; Schulenberg, Thomas S. (eds.), "Golden Tanager (Tangara arthus)", Birds of the World, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, doi:10.2173/bow.goltan1.01, retrieved 2021-10-22
Burns, Kevin J; Naoki, Kazuya (2004). "Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of Neotropical tanagers in the genus Tangara". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 32 (3): 838–854. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.02.013.
"Golden Tanager (Tangara aurulenta)". BirdLife. Retrieved 2021-10-25.
BirdLife International (2017). "Tangara arthus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T103849276A119485491. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103849276A119485491.en. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
BirdLife International (2017). "Tangara aurulenta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T103849300A119486025. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103849300A119486025.en. Retrieved 14 November 2021.

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