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Tangara gyrola (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Thraupidae
Genus: Tangara
Species: Tangara gyrola
Subspecies: T. g. albertinae – T. g. bangsi – T. g. catharinae – T. g. deleticia – T. g. gyrola – T. g. nupera – T. g. parva – T. g. toddi – T. g. viridissima

Dubious taxon or synonym: T. g. gyroloides


Tangara gyrola (Linnaeus, 1758)

Type locality: Suriname


Fringilla gyrola (protonym)


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio Decima, Reformata. Tomus I. Holmiæ (Stockholm): impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. 824 pp. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542 [first availability: page 181] BHL Reference page.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Grüntangare
English: Bay-headed Tanager
español: Tángara cabecibaya
euskara: Tangara gyrola
français: Calliste rouverdin
português: Saíra-de-cabeça-castanha
русский: Зелёная танагра
svenska: Roststrupig tangara

The bay-headed tanager (Tangara gyrola) is a medium-sized passerine bird. This tanager is a resident breeder in Costa Rica, Panama, South America south to Ecuador, Bolivia and southern Brazil, and on Trinidad.


The bay-headed tanager was formally described by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae under the binomial name Fringilla gyrola.[2] The specific epithet is a diminutive of the Latin gyrus meaning "ring".[3] Linnaeus based his own description on the "red-headed green-finch" that had been described and illustrated by the English naturalist George Edwards in 1743 in his A Natural History of Uncommon Birds.[4] The type locality is Suriname.[5] The bay-headed tanager is now placed in the genus Tangara that was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760.[6][7]

Nine subspecies are recognised:[7]

T. g. bangsi (Hellmayr, 1911) – Nicaragua to west Panama
T. g. deleticia (Bangs, 1908) – east Panama to central, wwest Colombia
T. g. nupera Bangs, 1917 – southwest Colombia, west Ecuador and northwest Peru
T. g. toddi Bangs & Penard, TE, 1921 – north Colombia and northwest, north Venezuela
T. g. viridissima (Lafresnaye, 1847) – northeast Venezuela and Trinidad
T. g. catharinae (Hellmayr, 1911) – central Colombia through east Ecuador and east Peru to west, central Bolivia
T. g. parva Zimmer, JT, 1943 – east Colombia, south Venezuela, northeast Peru and northwest Brazil
T. g. gyrola (Linnaeus, 1758) – southeast Venezuela, the Guianas and north Brazil
T. g. albertinae (Pelzeln, 1877) – central Brazil south of Amazon


Adult bay-headed tanagers are 14 cm long and weigh 19.5 g. The nominate race T. g. gyrola is mainly green apart from a chestnut head, a blue or green belly, and a thin gold collar on the hind neck. Sexes are similar, but immatures are duller with chestnut-flecked green heads. There is considerable plumage variation between the various subspecies, and T. g.viridissima of northeast Venezuela and Trinidad has green underparts concolorous with the rest of the body plumage.

The bay-headed tanager's song is a slow seee, seee, seee, tsou, tsooy.
Distribution and habitat

It occurs in forests, particularly in wetter areas. The bulky cup nest is built in a tree and the normal clutch is two brown-blotched white eggs. The female incubates the eggs for 13–14 days to hatching, with another 15–16 days before the chicks fledge.
Behavior and ecology

These are social birds which eat mainly fruit, usually swallowed whole. Insects are also taken, mainly from the underside of branches.

BirdLife International (2018). "Tangara gyrola". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22722878A132158366. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22722878A132158366.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 181.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Edwards, George (1743). A Natural History of Uncommon Birds. Vol. Part 1. London: Printed for the author at the College of Physicians. p. 23, Plate 23.
Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, ed. (1970). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 13. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 374.
Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie, ou, Méthode Contenant la Division des Oiseaux en Ordres, Sections, Genres, Especes & leurs Variétés (in French and Latin). Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. Vol. 1 p. 36 and Vol. 3 p. 3.

Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2020). "Tanagers and allies". IOC World Bird List Version 10.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 14 October 2020.

Further reading

Skutch, Alexander F. (1954). "Blue-rumped green tanager" (PDF). Life Histories of Central American Birds. Pacific Coast Avifauna, Number 31. Berkeley, California: Cooper Ornithological Society. pp. 235–240.

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