Fine Art

Tanygnathus gramineus - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam - UBA01 IZ18500266 (cropped)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Psittaciformes

Familia: Psittaculidae
Subfamilia: Psittaculinae
Tribus: Psittaculini
Genus: Tanygnathus
Species: Tanygnathus gramineus

Tanygnathus gramineus (Gmelin, 1788)

Original combination Psittacus gramineus (protonym)


Gmelin, J.F. 1788. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. - pp. i–xii, 1–500. Lipsiae. (Beer). DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.545 BHL Reference page. p. 338
IUCN: Tanygnathus gramineus (Vulnerable)

Vernacular names
العربية: ببغاء بورو الأخضر
català: Lloro becgròs de Buru
Cymraeg: Parot trwynddu
English: Black-lored Parrot
español: Loro de Buru
فارسی: طوطی چشم‌گوشه‌سیاه
suomi: Burunnokkakaija
français: Perruche de Buru
Bahasa Indonesia: Betet-kelapa buru
кырык мары: Шим лепкӓн кого нерӓн попугай
Nederlands: Zwartteugelpapegaai
svenska: svarttyglad papegoja

The black-lored parrot (Tanygnathus gramineus) also known as the Buru green parrot, is a parrot endemic to the Indonesian island of Buru. It is a 40 cm (16 in) long green parrot with black lores, and a turquoise crown. Males have red beaks, and females are gray-brown. The singing is high pitched and more protracted as compared to similar species, such as great-billed parrot.

The bird is rare and either fully or partly nocturnal, and therefore is poorly described. It was first reported in the scientific literature by the Dutch ornithologist Hendrik Cornelis Siebers (1890–1949) in 1930. The bird predominantly occupies the central, more elevated part of the island, where it was reported at the settlements of Gunung Tagalago, Wa Temun and Kunturun at elevations of 700–1100 meters (2,300–3,000 ft), as well on the southern lowlands at Fakal, Ehu and Leksula. There was one observation of these parrots near the Kayeli Bay at the eastern shores of Buru. More recent observations were made off the northern (Waflia) and northwestern (Wamlana) shores. The voice of the black-lored parrot was frequently heard at Kunturun, mostly 1–7 hours after the sunset, where the locals called the bird "kakatua ol’biru", meaning blue-headed parrot. However, it was caught during the day with slingshots in fruit trees suggesting that its activity is not purely nocturnal. Migration is relatively weak and there are only few reports of the parrots flying up and down hill at high altitudes overnight, as judged from their voices.[1][2]

The population density of black-lored parrot is estimated as 1.3–19 birds/km².[1] These birds apparently favor high-altitude forests which on Buru have areas of 1,789 km² above 900 m, and 872 km² above 1,200 m. Those forests are relatively untouched by logging which affects coastal areas. Hunting or capturing of these birds by locals is rather limited, and there is only one report of the locals selling a captured black-lored parrot at a market of the nearby Ambon Island in 1998.[2]

Nevertheless, owing to the small habitat, the species were listed as vulnerable since 1994 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.[1] The establishment of two protected areas on Buru, Gunung Kapalat Mada (1,380 km²) and Waeapo (50 km²), are partly aimed at preserving the habitat of the black-lored parrot.[3]

BirdLife International (2017). "Tanygnathus gramineus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22685016A110430818. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22685016A110430818.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
Black-lored Parrot Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine, Hokkaido Institute of Environmental Sciences and Japan Science and Technology Agency

"Buru rain forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.

Further reading

Juniper & Parr (1998) Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World; ISBN 0-300-07453-0.

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