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Tarsiger cyanurus

Tarsiger cyanurus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Muscicapoidea

Familia: Muscicapidae
Genus: Tarsiger
Species: Tarsiger cyanurus

Tarsiger cyanurus (Pallas, 1773)

Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs 2: 709.

Vernacular names
brezhoneg: Eostig divgazel ruz
čeština: Modruška tajgová
dansk: Blåstjert
Deutsch: Blauschwanz
English: Red-flanked Bluetail
Esperanto: Bluvostulo
español: Ruiseñor Coliazul
suomi: Sinipyrstö
føroyskt: Velblái
français: Rossignol à flancs roux
magyar: Kékfarkú
日本語: ルリビタキ
lietuvių: Paprastoji mėlynuodegė
монгол: Гургалдай хөхзоот
norsk: Blåstjert
polski: Modraczek zwyczajny
русский: Синехвостка
svenska: Blåstjärt
中文(繁體): 藍尾鴝
中文: 紅脇藍尾鴝

The red-flanked bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus), also known as the orange-flanked bush-robin, is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae, but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher, Muscicapidae. It, and related species, are often called chats.


It is a migratory insectivorous species breeding in mixed coniferous forest with undergrowth in northern Asia and northeastern Europe, from Finland east across Siberia to Kamchatka and south to Japan. It winters mainly in southeastern Asia, in the Indian Subcontinent, the Himalayas, Taiwan, and northern Indochina. The breeding range is slowly expanding westwards through Finland (where up to 500 pairs now breed), and it is a rare but increasing vagrant to western Europe, mainly to Great Britain.[2][3][4] There have also been a few records in westernmost North America, mostly in western Alaska, but one on San Clemente Island off the southern California coast.[5][6]

At 13–14 cm long and 10–18 g weight, the red-flanked bluetail is similar in size and weight to the common redstart and slightly smaller (particularly with a slimmer build) than the European robin. As the name implies, both sexes have a blue tail and rump, and orange-red flanks; they also have a white throat and greyish-white underparts, and a small, thin black bill and slender black legs. The adult male additionally has dark blue upperparts, while females and immature males are plain brown above apart from the blue rump and tail, and have a dusky breast. In behaviour, it is similar to a common redstart, frequently flicking its tail in the same manner, and regularly flying from a perch to catch insects in the air or on the ground. The male sings its melancholy trill from treetops. Its call is a typical chat "tacc" noise. The nest is built on or near the ground, with 3–5 eggs which are incubated by the female.[2][7]
Taxonomy and nomenclature

The genus name Tarsiger is from Ancient Greek tarsos, "flat of the foot" and Latin gerere, "to carry". The specific cyanurus is also derived from Greek, the roots being kuanos, "dark-blue", and oura, "tail".[8]

In the past generally treated as comprising two subspecies, T. c. cyanurus breeding in northern Asia and T. c. rufilatus breeding in the Himalaya, it is now increasingly being treated as monotypic, with T. c. rufilatus split off as a distinct species, Himalayan bluetail T. rufilatus. The species has also been known by a variety of English and scientific names in the ornithological literature. The table below details the treatments adopted by some major works, by publication date (newest first):

Publication English name Scientific name Taxonomic notes
Voous[18] Red-flanked bluetail or
orange-flanked bush robin
Tarsiger cyanurus polytypic; includes rufilatus
OBC Checklist[15] Orange-flanked bush robin Tarsiger cyanurus polytypic; includes rufilatus
IOC standard list, version 2.5[9] Red-flanked bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus monotypic; excludes rufilatus
IOC standard list, version 1[10] Red-flanked bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus polytypic; includes rufilatus
Howard & Moore (3rd edition)[14] Orange-flanked bush robin Luscinia cyanura polytypic; includes rufilatus
Howard & Moore (2nd edition)[16] Red-flanked bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus polytypic; includes rufilatus
HBW[13] Orange-flanked bush-robin Tarsiger cyanurus polytypic; includes rufilatus, although split suggested
Collins Bird Guide[7] Red-flanked bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus
Clements Checklist (6th edition)[11] Red-flanked bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus polytypic; includes rufilatus
BWP[17] Red-flanked bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus polytypic; includes rufilatus
Birds of South Asia[12] Northern red-flanked bush-robin Tarsiger cyanurus monotypic; rufilatus split off


BirdLife International (2016). "Tarsiger cyanurus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T105294257A87892860. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T105294257A87892860.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
del Hoyo, J.; et al., eds. (2005). Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 10. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 754. ISBN 84-87334-72-5.
British Birds Rarities Committee occurrences, 1950-2006
Hudson, N. et al. (2009). Report on rare birds in Great Britain in 2008. British Birds 102: 572-573.
National Geographic (1999). Field Guide to the Birds of North America 3rd ed. ISBN 0-7922-7451-2.
eBird: Red-flanked Bluetail in California (Dec 2011)
Svensson, L., Mullarney, K., & Zetterström, D. (2009) Collins Bird Guide, ed. 2. ISBN 0-00-219728-6, pages 260-1
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. pp. 128, 379. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
IOC World Bird List, version 2.5 (2010). Family Muscicapidae
Gill, Frank and Minturn Wright (2006) Birds of the World: Recommended English Names ISBN 978-0-7136-7904-5, page 175
Clements, James F. (2007) The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World 6th edition ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9, page 456
Rasmussen, Pamela C. and John C. Anderton (2005) Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide ISBN 84-87334-67-9, volume 2, page 394
del Hoyo, Josep, Andy Elliot & David Christie (2005) Handbook of the Birds of the World volume 10 ISBN 84-87334-72-5, pages 754-5
Dickinson, Edward C. (2003) The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World 3rd edition ISBN 0-7136-6536-X, page 677
Inskipp, Tim, Nigel Lindsey and William Duckworth (1996) An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of the Oriental Region ISBN 0-9529545-0-8, page 144
Howard, Richard and Alick Moore (1991) The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World 2nd edition ISBN 0-12-356910-9, page 316
Cramp, S. (1988) The Birds of the Western Palearctic volume 5. ISBN 978-0-19-857508-5

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