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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Cladus: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Infraordo: Eucynodontia
Cladus: Probainognathia
Cladus: Prozostrodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Trechnotheria
Infraclassis: Zatheria
Supercohors: Theria
Cohors: Eutheria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Cladus: Boreoeutheria
Superordo: Laurasiatheria
Cladus: Euungulata
Ordo: Artiodactyla
Cladus: Artiofabula
Cladus: Cetruminantia
Subordo: Ruminantia

Familia: Antilocapridae
Genera (1 + 20†): Antilocapra – †Ilingoceros – †Ottoceros – †Plioceros – †Sphenophalos – †Osbornoceros – †Proantilocapra – †Capromeryx – †Ceratomeryx – †Hayoceros – †Hexameryx – †Hexobelomeryx – †Stockoceros – †Tetrameryx – †Cosoryx – †Meryceros – †Merycodus – †Paracosoryx – †Ramoceros – †Submeryceros

Antilocapridae J. E. Gray, 1866

Antilocapridae in Mammal Species of the World.
Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (Editors) 2005. Mammal Species of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.

Vernacular names
dansk: Gaffelbuk
Deutsch: Gabelbock
Ελληνικά: Αντιλοποκαπρίδες
English: Pronghorn
español: Berrendo
suomi: Hanka-antiloopit
français: Pronghorn
magyar: Villásszarvúantilop-félék
italiano: Antilocapra
日本語: プロングホーン科
Nederlands: Gaffelbok
polski: widłorogie
português: Antilocapras/Antilocaprídeos
svenska: Gaffelantelop
українська: Вилорогові

The Antilocapridae are a family of artiodactyls endemic to North America. Their closest extant relatives are the giraffids[1] with which they comprise the superfamily Giraffoidea. Only one species, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), is living today; all other members of the family are extinct. The living pronghorn is a small ruminant mammal resembling an antelope.


In most respects, antilocaprids resemble other ruminants. They have a complex, four-chambered stomach for digesting tough plant matter, cloven hooves, and small, forked horns. Their horns resemble those of the bovids, in that they have a true horny sheath, but, uniquely, they are shed outside the breeding season, and subsequently regrown. Their lateral toes are even further diminished than in bovids, with the digits themselves being entirely lost, and only the cannon bones remaining. Antilocaprids have the same dental formula as most other ruminants:

The antilocaprids are ruminants of the clade Pecora. Other extant pecorans are the families Giraffidae (giraffes), Cervidae (deer), Moschidae (musk deer), and Bovidae (cattle, goats and sheep, wildebeests and allies, and antelopes). The exact interrelationships among the pecorans have been debated, mainly focusing on the placement of Giraffidae, but a recent large-scale ruminant genome sequencing study suggests Antilocapridae are the sister taxon to Giraffidae, as shown in the cladogram below.[2]



Tragulidae Tragulus napu - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam - (white background).jpg


Antilocapridae Antilocapra white background.jpg

Giraffidae Giraffa camelopardalis Brockhaus white background.jpg

Cervidae The deer of all lands (1898) Hangul white background.png

Bovidae Birds and nature (1901) (14562088237) white background.jpg

Moschidae Moschus chrysogaster white background.jpg


The ancestors of pronghorn diverged from the giraffids in the Early Miocene.[2] This was in part of a relatively late mammal diversification following a climate change that transformed subtropical woodlands into open savannah grasslands.[2]

The antilocaprids evolved in North America, where they filled a niche similar to that of the bovids that evolved in the Old World. During the Miocene and Pliocene, they were a diverse and successful group, with many different species. Some had horns with bizarre shapes, or had four, or even six, horns. Examples include Osbornoceros, with smooth, slightly curved horns, Paracosoryx, with flattened horns that widened to forked tips, Ramoceros, with fan-shaped horns, and Hayoceros, with four horns.[3][4]
Subfamily Antilocaprinae

Tribe Antilocaprini
Genus Antilocapra
Antilocapra americana - pronghorn
A. a. americana - Common pronghorn
A. a. mexicana - Mexican pronghorn
A. a. peninsularis - Baja California pronghorn
A. a. sonoriensis - Sonoran pronghorn
A. a. oregona - Oregon pronghorn
†Antilocapra pacifica[5]
Genus †Texoceros[6]
Texoceros altidens
Texoceros edensis
Texoceros guymonensis
Texoceros minorei
Texoceros texanus
Texoceros vaughani
Tribe †Ilingoceratini
Genus †Ilingoceros
Ilingoceros alexandrae
Ilingoceros schizoceros
Genus †Ottoceros[7]
Ottoceros peacevalleyensis
Genus †Plioceros[8]
Plioceros blicki
Plioceros dehlini
Plioceros floblairi
Genus †Sphenophalos[6]
Sphenophalos garciae
Sphenophalos middleswarti
Sphenophalos nevadanus
Tribe †Proantilocaprini
Genus †Proantilocapra
Proantilocapra platycornea
Genus †Osbornoceros
Osbornoceros osborni
Tribe Stockoceratini
Genus †Capromeryx - (junior synonym Breameryx)
Capromeryx arizonensis - (junior synonym B. arizonensis)
Capromeryx furcifer - (junior synonyms B. minimus, C. minimus)
Capromeryx gidleyi - (junior synonym B. gidleyi)
Capromeryx mexicana - (junior synonym B. mexicana)
Capromeryx minor - (junior synonym B. minor)
Capromeryx tauntonensis
Genus †Ceratomeryx[7]
Ceratomeryx prenticei
Genus †Hayoceros
Hayoceros barbouri
Hayoceros falkenbachi
Genus †Hexameryx
Hexameryx simpsoni
Genus †Hexobelomeryx[7]
Hexobelomeryx fricki
Hexobelomeryx simpsoni
Genus †Stockoceros
Stockoceros conklingi (junior synonym S. onusrosagris)

Stockoceros conklingi skeleton
Genus †Tetrameryx
Tetrameryx irvingtonensis
Tetrameryx knoxensis
Tetrameryx mooseri
Tetrameryx shuleri
Tetrameryx tacubayensis
Subfamily †Merycodontinae
Genus †Cosoryx
Cosoryx cerroensis
Cosoryx furcatus
Cosoryx ilfonensis
Genus †Merriamoceros
Merriamoceros coronatus
Genus †Merycodus (syn. Meryceros and Submeryceros)[9][10]
Merycodus crucensis
Merycodus hookwayi
Merycodus joraki
Merycodus major
Merycodus minimus
Merycodus minor
Merycodus necatus
Merycodus nenzelensis
Merycodus prodromus
Merycodus sabulonis
Merycodus warreni
Genus †Paracosoryx[11]
Paracosoryx alticornis
Paracosoryx burgensis
Paracosoryx dawesensis
Paracosoryx furlongi
Paracosoryx loxoceros
Paracosoryx nevadensis
Paracosoryx wilsoni
Genus †Ramoceros
Ramoceros brevicornis
Ramoceros marthae
Ramoceros merriami
Ramoceros osborni
Ramoceros palmatus
Ramoceros ramosus


"Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet: Taxonomy & History". International Environment Library Consortium. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
Chen, L.; Qiu, Q.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, K. (2019). "Large-scale ruminant genome sequencing provides insights into their evolution and distinct traits". Science. 364 (6446): eaav6202. Bibcode:2019Sci...364.6202C. doi:10.1126/science.aav6202. PMID 31221828.
Savage, RJG; Long, MR (1986). Mammal Evolution: an illustrated guide. New York: Facts on File. pp. 232–233. ISBN 0-8160-1194-X.
Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 280. ISBN 1-84028-152-9.
Richards, G.D.; McCrossin, M.L. (1991). "A new species of Antilocapra from the late Quaternary of California". Geobios. 24 (5): 623–635. doi:10.1016/0016-6995(91)80027-W.
Davis, E.B.; Calède, J.J. (January 2012). "Extending the utility of artiodactyl postcrania for species-level identifications using multivariate morphometric analyses". Palaeontologia Electronica. 15 (1): 1A:22p. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
Semprebon, G.M.; Rivals, F. (September 2007). "Was grass more prevalent in the pronghorn past? An assessment of the dietary adaptations of Miocene to Recent Antilocapridae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla)". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 253 (3–4): 332–347. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.06.006.
Carranza-Castenada, O.; Aranda-Gomez, J.J.; et al. (April 2013). "The Early-Late Hemphillian (HH2) faunal assemblage from Juchipila Basin, State of Zacatecas, Mexico, and its biochronologic correlation with other Hemphillian faunas in central Mexico" (PDF). Contributions in Science. 521: 13–49. S2CID 53606726. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-02-27. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
Janis, Kathleen M. (1998). Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America: Volume 1, Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulate Like Mammals. Cambridge University Press. p. 496.
Prothero, Donald R. (2007). The Evolution of Artiodactyls. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 232. ISBN 9780801887352.
Beatty, B.L.; Martin, L.D. (June 2009). "The earliest North American record of the Antilocapridae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia)". PalaeoBios. 29 (1): 29–35. Retrieved 13 August 2020.

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