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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Cladus: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Infraordo: Eucynodontia
Cladus: Probainognathia
Cladus: Prozostrodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Trechnotheria
Infraclassis: Zatheria
Supercohors: Theria
Cohors: Eutheria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Cladus: Boreoeutheria
Superordo: Euarchontoglires
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Haplorhini
Infraordo: Simiiformes
Parvordo: Platyrrhini

Familia: Atelidae
Subfamiliae (2): Atelinae – Alouattinae
Overview of genera (4 + 1†)

Alouatta – AtelesBrachytelesLagothrix – †Solimoea


Atelidae Gray, 1825


Ruiz-García, M.; Pinedo-Castro, M.; Shostell, J.M. 2014: How many genera and species of woolly monkeys (Atelidae, Platyrrhine, Primates) are there? The first molecular analysis of Lagothrix flavicauda, an endemic Peruvian primate species. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 79: 179-198. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.05.034 Reference page.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Павукападобныя малпы
български: Паякообразни маймуни (семейство)
català: Atèlid
Deutsch: Klammerschwanzaffen
English: Atelidae
español: Atelidae
suomi: Hämähäkkiapinat
français: Atélidés
hrvatski: Hvataši
italiano: Atelidae
日本語: オマキザル科
한국어: 거미원숭이과
lietuvių: Koatos
Nederlands: Grijpstaartapen
polski: Czepiakowate
português: Atelídeos
svenska: Atelesliknande brednäsor
Türkçe: Örümcek maymunugiller
中文: 蜘蛛猴科

The Atelidae are one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised. It was formerly included in the family Cebidae. Atelids are generally larger monkeys; the family includes the howler, spider, woolly, and woolly spider monkeys (the latter being the largest of the New World monkeys). They are found throughout the forested regions of Central and South America, from Mexico to northern Argentina.

1 Characteristics
2 Classification
3 References
4 External links


The Atelidae family consists of monkeys that are small to moderate in size, usually 34 to 72 cm in head-body length, with the howler monkeys being the largest members of the group, and the spider monkeys being the smallest. They have long prehensile tails with a sensitive, almost hairless, tactile pad on the underside of the distal part. The tail is frequently used as 'fifth limb' while moving through the trees where they make their homes. They also have nails on their fingers and toes, enabling them to climb. Most species have predominantly dark brown, grey, or black fur, often with paler markings.[2]

These are arboreal and diurnal animals, with most species restricted to dense rain forest, although some howler monkey species are found in drier forests, or wooded savannah. They mainly eat fruit and leaves, although the smaller species, in particular, may also eat some small insects. They have the dental formula:

Females give birth to a single infant (or, rarely, twins) after a gestation period of 180 to 225 days. In most species, individuals give birth every one to three years, and there is little, if any, seasonal peak in the number of births.[2]

Atelid monkeys are typically polygamous, and live in social groups with anything up to twenty five adults, depending on species. Where groups are relatively small, as is common amongst the howler monkeys, a single male monopolises a 'harem' of females, but larger groups will contain several males, with a clear hierarchy of dominance.[2]

Currently, 26 species of extant atelid monkey are recognized, grouped into four genera, and two subfamilies.[1] In addition, a number of extinct species from the fossil record have been identified as being within or closely related to this family.[3]

Family Atelidae

Subfamily Alouattinae
Genus Alouatta, howler monkeys
Alouatta palliata group
Coiba Island howler, Alouatta coibensis
Mantled howler, Alouatta palliata
Guatemalan black howler, Alouatta pigra
Alouatta seniculus group
Ursine howler, Alouatta arctoidea
Red-handed howler, Alouatta belzebul
Spix's red-handed howler, Alouatta discolor
Brown howler, Alouatta guariba
Juruá red howler, Alouatta juara
Guyanan red howler, Alouatta macconnelli
Amazon black howler, Alouatta nigerrima
Purus red howler, Alouatta puruensis
Bolivian red howler, Alouatta sara
Venezuelan red howler, Alouatta seniculus
Maranhão red-handed howler, Alouatta ululata
Alouatta caraya group
Black howler, Alouatta caraya
Incertae sedis
†Alouatta mauroi (Late Pleistocene)
Genus †Cartelles
†Cartelles coimbrafilhoi (Late Pleistocene)
Genus †Paralouatta, Cuban monkeys
†Paralouatta varonai
†Paralouatta marianae
Genus †Stirtonia
†Stirtonia tatacoensis
†Stirtonia victoriae

Subfamily Atelinae
Genus Ateles, spider monkeys
Red-faced spider monkey, Ateles paniscus
White-fronted spider monkey, Ateles belzebuth
Peruvian spider monkey, Ateles chamek
Brown spider monkey, Ateles hybridus
White-cheeked spider monkey, Ateles marginatus
Black-headed spider monkey, Ateles fusciceps
Geoffroy's spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi
Genus Brachyteles, muriquis (woolly spider monkeys)
Southern muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides
Northern muriqui, Brachyteles hypoxanthus
Genus Lagothrix, woolly monkeys
Common woolly monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha
Yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrix flavicauda
Genus †Caipora
†Caipora bambuiorum (Late Pleistocene)
Genus †Protopithecus
†Protopithecus brasiliensis (Late Pleistocene)
Genus †Solimoea
†Solimoea acrensis (Late Miocene)
Subfamily Incertae sedis
Genus †Chilecebus
†Chilecebus carrascoensis (Early Miocene)
Genus †Mohanamico
†Mohanamico hershkovitzi (Middle Miocene)

Silvestro etal 2017 showed the relationship among the extinct and extant atelid genera:[3]

stem Atelidae



stem Atelinae







stem Alouattinae






Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 148–152. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
Macdonald, D., ed. (1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 361. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.
Silvestro, Daniele; Marcelo F. Tejedor; Martha L. Serrano Serrano; Oriane Loiseau; Victor Rossier; Jonathan Rolland; Alexander Zizka; Alexandre Antonelli, and Nicolas Salamin. 2017. Evolutionary history of New World monkeys revealed by molecular and fossil data. BioRxiv _. 1–32. Accessed 2019-02-20.

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