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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Colubroidea

Familia: Colubridae
Subfamilia: Colubrinae
Genera (91): AeluroglenaAprosdoketophisArchelapheArgyrogenaArizonaBamanophisBogertophisBoigaCemophoraChapinophisChironiusCoelognathusColuberConopsisCoronellaCrotaphopeltisDasypeltisDendrophidionDipsadoboaDispholidusDolichophisDrymarchonDrymobiusDrymoluberEirenisElapheEuprepiophisFicimiaGeagrasGonyosomaGyalopionHapsidophrysHemerophisHemorrhoisHierophisLampropeltisLeptodrymusLeptophisLiopeltisLycodonLytorhynchusMacroprotodonMasticophisMastigodryasMeizodonMopanveldophisMuhtarophisOligodonOocatochusOpheodrysOreocryptophisOrientocoluberOxybelisPalusophisPantherophisPersiophisPhilothamnusPhrynonaxPhyllorhynchusPituophisPlatycepsPseudelaphePseudoficimiaPtyasRhamnophisRhinobothryumRhinocheilusRhynchocalamusSalvadoraScaphiophisScolecophisSenticolisSimophisSonoraSpalerosophisSpilotesStegonotusStenorrhinaSymphimusSympholisTantillaTantillitaTelescopusThelotornisThrasopsToxicodryasTrimorphodonWallaceophisXenelaphisXyelodontophisZamenis


Colubrinae Oppel, 1811

Type genus: Coluber Linnaeus, 1758

Primary references

Oppel, M. 1811. Die Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen der Reptilien als Prodrom einer Naturgeschichte derselben. Joseph Lindauer: München. XII + 86 pp. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Schätti, B. & Utiger, U. 2001. Hemerophis, a new genus for Zamenis socotrae Günther, and a contribution to the phylogeny of Old World racers, whip snakes, and related genera (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubrinae). Revue suisse de zoologie 108(4): 919–948. BHL Reference page.
Utiger, U., Helfenberger, N., Schätti, B., Schmidt, C., Ruf, M. & Ziswiler, V. 2002. Molecular Systematics and Phylogeny of Old and New World Ratsnakes, Elaphe Auct., and Related Genera (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Russian Journal of Herpetology 9(2): 105–124. DOI: 10.30906/1026-2296-2002-9-2-105-124 [nonfunctional] Broken access Reference page.
Utiger, U., Schätti, B. & Helfenberger, N. 2005. The Oriental colubrine genus Coelognathus Fitzinger, 1843 and classification of Old and New World racers and ratsnakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae, Colubrinae). Russian Journal of Herpetology 12(1): 39–60. DOI: 10.30906/1026-2296-2005-12-1-39-60 [nonfunctional] Broken access Reference page.
Schulz, K.-D., Böhme, W. & Tillack, F. 2011. Hemipenis Morphology of Coronella bella Stanley, 1917 with Comments on Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Issues of Ratsnakes (Squamata: Colubridae: Colubrinae: Elaphe Auct.). Russian Journal of Herpetology 18(4): 273–283. DOI: 10.30906/1026-2296-2011-18-4-273–283 Paywall Reference page.
Wallach, V., Williams, K.L. & Boundy, J. 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group: Boca Raton, Florida. 1237 pp. ISBN 9781138034006 ebook Paywall Reference page.
Avcı, A., Ilgaz, Ç., Rajabizadeh, M., Yılmaz, C., Üzüm, N., Adriaens, D., Kumlutaş, Y. & Olgun, K. 2015. Molecular Phylogeny and Micro CT-Scanning Revealed Extreme Cryptic Biodiversity in Kukri Snake, Muhtarophis gen. nov., a New Genus for Rhynchocalamus barani (Serpentes: Colubridae). Russian Journal of Herpetology 22(3): 159–174. Abstract and Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Figueiroa, A., McKelvy, A.D., Grismer, L.L., Bell, C.D. & Lailvaux, S.P. 2016. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus. PLoS ONE 11(9): e0161070. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161070 Open access Reference page.
Mirza, Z.A., Vyas, R., Patel, H., Maheta, J. & Sanap, R.V. 2016. A New Miocene-Divergent Lineage of Old World Racer Snake from India. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0148380. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148380 Reference page.
Chen, X., Lemmon, A.R., Lemmon, E.M., Pyron, R.A. & Burbrink, F.T. 2017. Using phylogenomics to understand the link between biogeographic origins and regional diversification in ratsnakes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 111: 206–218. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.03.017 Paywall Reference page.
Rajabizadeh, M., Pyron, R.A., Nazarov, R., Poyarkov, N.A., Adriaens, D. & Herrel, A. 2020. Additions to the phylogeny of colubrine snakes in Southwestern Asia, with description of a new genus and species (Serpentes: Colubridae: Colubrinae). PeerJ 8: e9016. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9016 Open access Reference page.
Boundy, J. 2021. Snakes of the World: A Supplement. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group: Boca Raton, Florida. 273 pp. ISBN 9781138618138 ebook Paywall Reference page.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Eigentliche Nattern
English: Advanced Snakes
suomi: Varsinaiset tarhakäärmeet
ไทย: วงศ์ย่อยงูเขียว

The Colubrinae are a subfamily of the family Colubridae of snakes. It includes numerous genera, and although taxonomic sources often disagree on the exact number, The Reptile Database lists 717 species in 92 genera as of September 2019.[2] It is the second largest subfamily of colubrids, after Dipsadinae.[2] Many of the most commonly known snakes are members of this subfamily, including rat snakes, king snakes, milk snakes, vine snakes, and indigo snakes.[2]

Colubrine snakes are distributed worldwide, with the highest diversity in North America, Asia, northern Africa, and the Middle East. There are relatively few species of colubrine snakes in Europe, South America, Australia, and southern Africa, and none in Madagascar, the Caribbean, or the Pacific Islands.[2][3][4]

Colubrine snakes are extremely morphologically and ecologically diverse. Many are terrestrial, and there are specialized fossorial (e.g. Tantilla) and arboreal (e.g. Oxybelis) groups, but no truly aquatic groups. Some of the most powerful constrictors (e.g. Pantherophis, Pituophis, Lampropeltis) are members of this group, as are a few snakes that have strong enough venom to kill humans (i.e. boomslangs [Dispholidus] and twigsnakes [Thelotornis]).[5][6]

Within Colubrinae, genera and species seem to make up five distinct radiations[7] that are to varying degrees broadly similar in terms of ecology and geographic distribution, although increased sampling is needed to determine whether all species currently placed in Colubrinae fit into one of these groups. These correspond roughly to the historically recognized tribe names Sonorini, Colubrini, Boigini/Lycodontini, Dispholidini, and Lampropeltini.

Coluber is the type genus of both Colubrinae and Colubridae and the basis for the name Colubroidea, and it is one of only three snake genera named by Linnaeus still in use for a snake today.[8][9]

A group of 4 genera historically placed in Colubrinae have recently been called a separate subfamily, Ahaetullinae, in a few analyses.[10] These are Ahaetulla Link, 1807, Chrysopelea Boie, 1827, Dendrelaphis Boulenger, 1890, and Dryophiops Boulenger, 1896.
Sonora semiannulata (groundsnake)
Gonyosoma boulengeri (rhino rat snake)
Boiga dendrophila (mangrove snake)
Dispholidus typus (boomslang)
Coronella austriaca (smooth snake)

Aeluroglena Boulenger, 1898
Aprosdoketophis Wallach, Lanza & Nistri, 2010
Archelaphe Schulz, Böhme & Tillack, 2011
Argyrogena Werner, 1924
Arizona Kennicott, 1859
Bamanophis Schätti & Trape, 2008
Bogertophis Dowling & Price, 1988
Boiga Fitzinger, 1826
Cemophora Cope, 1860
Chapinophis Campbell & Smith, 1998
Chironius Fitzinger, 1826
Coelognathus Fitzinger, 1843
Coluber Linnaeus, 1758
Colubroelaps Orlov, Kharin, Ananjeva, Thien Tao & Quang Truong, 2009
Conopsis Günther, 1858
Coronella Laurenti, 1768
Crotaphopeltis Fitzinger, 1843
Dasypeltis Wagler, 1830
Dendrophidion Fitzinger, 1843
Dipsadoboa Günther, 1858
Dispholidus Fitzsimons & Brain, 1958
Dolichophis Gistel, 1868
Drymarchon Fitzinger, 1843
Drymobius Fitzinger, 1843
Drymoluber Amaral, 1929
Eirenis Jan, 1862
Elachistodon Reinhardt, 1863—subsumed by Boiga
Elaphe Fitzinger in Wagler, 1833
Euprepiophis Fitzinger, 1843
Ficimia Gray, 1849
Geagras Cope, 1876
Gonyosoma Wagler, 1828
Gyalopion Cope, 1860
Hapsidophrys Fischer, 1856
Hemerophis Schätti & Utiger, 2001
Hemorrhois Boie, 1826
Hierophis Fitzinger, 1843
Lampropeltis Fitzinger, 1843
Leptodrymus Amaral, 1927
Leptophis Bell, 1825
Liopeltis Fitzinger, 1843
Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826
Lytorhynchus Peters, 1862
Macroprotodon Guichenot, 1850
Masticophis Baird & Girard, 1853
Mastigodryas Amaral, 1935
Meizodon Fischer, 1856
Mopanveldophis Figueroa et al., 2016
Muhtarophis Avcı, Ilgaz, Rajabizadeh, Yılmaz, Üzüm, Adriaens, Kumlutaş & Olgun, 2015
Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826
Oocatochus Helfenberger, 2001
Opheodrys Fitzinger, 1843
Oreocryptophis Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger, 2005
Orientocoluber Kharin, 2011
Oxybelis Wagler, 1830
Pantherophis Fitzinger, 1843
Persiophis Rajabizadeh, Pyron, Nazarov, Poyarkov, Adriaens, & Herrel, 2020
Philothamnus Smith, 1840
Phrynonax Cope, 1862
Phyllorhynchus Stejneger, 1890
Pituophis Holbrook, 1842
Platyceps Blyth, 1860
Pseudelaphe Mertens & Rosenberg, 1943
Pseudoficimia Bocourt, 1883
Ptyas Fitzinger, 1843
Rhamnophis Günther, 1862
Rhinobothryum Wagler, 1830
Rhinocheilus Baird & Girard, 1853
Rhynchocalamus Günther, 1864
Salvadora Baird & Girard, 1853
Scaphiophis Peters, 1870
Scolecophis Fitzinger, 1843
Senticolis Campbell & Howell, 1965
Simophis Peters, 1860
Sonora Baird & Girard, 1843
Spalerosophis Jan, 1865
Spilotes Wagler, 1830
Stegonotus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854
Stenorrhina Duméril, 1853
Stichophanes Wang, Messenger, Zhao & Zhu, 2014
Symphimus Cope, 1869
Sympholis Cope, 1861
Tantilla Baird & Girard, 1853
Tantillita Smith, 1941
Telescopus Wagler, 1830
Thelotornis Smith, 1849
Thrasops Hallowell, 1857
Toxicodryas Hallowell, 1857
Trimorphodon Cope, 1861
Wallaceophis Mirza, Vyas, Patel & Sanap, 2016
Xenelaphis Günther, 1864
Xyelodontophis Broadley & Wallach, 2002
Zamenis Wagler, 1830


"Subfamily Colubrinae Oppel 1811 (colubrid snake)". Fossilworks. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
Uetz, Peter. "Colubrinae". The Reptile Database. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
Wallach, V. W.; Williams, K. L.; Boundy, J. (2014). Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press.
Pough, F. H.; Andrews, R. M.; Crump, M. L.; Savitzky, A. H.; Wells, K. D.; Brandley, M. C. (2016). Herpetology (4th ed.). Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
Pla, D.; Sanz, L.; Whiteley, G.; Wagstaff, S. C.; Harrison, R. A.; Casewell, N. R.; Calvete, J. J. (2017). "What killed Karl Patterson Schmidt? Combined venom gland transcriptomic, venomic and antivenomic analysis of the South African green tree snake (the boomslang), Dispholidus typus". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects. 1861 (4): 814–823. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.01.020. PMC 5335903. PMID 28130154.
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Pyron, R. A.; Burbrink, F. T.; Colli, G. R.; De Oca, A. N. M.; Vitt, L. J.; Kuczynski, C. A.; Wiens, J. J. (2011). "The phylogeny of advanced snakes (Colubroidea), with discovery of a new subfamily and comparison of support methods for likelihood trees" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 58 (2): 329–342. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.11.006. PMID 21074626.
Durso, Andrew (25 May 2015). "The Linnaean Snakes: Part I". Life is Short, but Snakes are Long. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
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Figueroa, A.; McKelvy, A. D.; Grismer, L. L.; Bell, C. D.; Lailvaux, S. P. (2016). "A species-level phylogeny of extant snakes with description of a new colubrid subfamily and genus". PLOS ONE. 11 (9): e0161070. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1161070F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161070. PMC 5014348. PMID 27603205.


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