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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Superclassis: Multicrustacea
Classis: Malacostraca
Subclassis: Eumalacostraca
Superordo: Eucarida
Ordo: Decapoda
Subordines: Dendrobranchiata - Pleocyemata

[source: De Grave et al. (2009)]

Genera incertae sedis: †Anaglyptus – †Aulacopodia – †Brome – †Cardirhynchus – †Eurycarpus – †Homelys – †Lambropsis – †Liocaris – †Lupeites – †Oedisoma – †Olinaecaris – †Paradoxilissopsa – †Phalangites – †Psammograpsus – †Pseudomicippe – †Roemerus – †Secretanella – †Vanuachela – †Wulaicarcinus

[genera after De Grave et al. (2009)]

Decapoda Latreille, 1802
cited sources

De Grave, S., Pentcheff, N.D., Ahyong, S.T., Chan T-Y., Crandall, K.A., Dworschak, P.C., Felder, D.L., Feldmann, R.M., Fransen, C.H.J.M., Goulding, L.Y.D., Lemaitre, R., Low, M.E.Y., Martin, J.W., Ng, P.K.L., Schweitzer, C.E., Tan, S.H., Tshudy, D. & Wetzer, R. 2009. A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 21: 1–109. PDF. Reference page.

Additional references

Bishop, G.A. 2016. The Coon Creek decapod assemblages; Cretaceous marine paleocommunities of northern Mississippi and Tennessee. Pp 7–20 In Ehret, D.J., Harrell, T.L., Jr. & Ebersole, S.M. (eds.) 2016. The Paleontology of the Cretaceous Coon Creek Formation. Bulletin Alabama Museum of natural history, Bull. 33, vol. 2: 1-121. Reference page. . Reference page.
Díaz, A.R., Merlo Álvarez, V.H. & Damborenea, C. 2017. Type material housed in the Carcinological Collection of the Museo de La Plata, Argentina. Zootaxa 4303(1): 88–102. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4303.1.5. Reference page.
De Grave, S.; Fransen, C.H.J.M. (eds.) 2010: Contributions to shrimp taxonomy. Zootaxa, 2372: 1–414. Title & copyright page Table of contents ISBN 978-1-86977-457-8 (paperback) ISBN 978-1-86977-458-5 (online edition)
De Grave, S.; Fransen, C.H.J.M. 2010: Contributions to shrimp taxonomy — Editorial. Pp. 5-6 in De Grave, S.; Fransen, C.H.J.M. (eds.) Contributions to shrimp taxonomy. Zootaxa, 2372: 1–414. Preview PDF
Fenwick, G.D. 1978: Decapoda of the Snares Islands, New Zealand. New Zealand journal of marine and freshwater research, 12(2): 205–209. DOI: 10.1080/00288330.1978.9515742
Froglia, C. & Clark, P.F. 2011. The forgotten Narrative of H.M.S. Challenger and the implications for decapod nomenclature. Zootaxa, 2788: 45–56. Preview
González, J.A. 2018. Checklists of Crustacea Decapoda from the Canary and Cape Verde Islands, with an assessment of Macaronesian and Cape Verde biogeographic marine ecoregions. Zootaxa 4413(3): 401–448. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4413.3.1 Paywall Reference page.
Hernández, L.; Balart, E.F.; Reyes-Bonilla, H. 2009: Checklist of reef decapod crustaceans (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the southern Gulf of California, México. Zootaxa, 2119: 39–50. Abstract & excerpt
Hernández, L.; Ortiz, G.R.; Reyes-Bonilla, H. 2013: Coral-associated decapods (Crustacea) from the Mexican Tropical Pacific coast. Zootaxa 3609(5): 451–464. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3609.5.1 Reference page.
Latreille, P. A., (1802). Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. Ouvrage faisant suite à l’histoire naturelle générale et particulière, composée par Leclerc de Buffon, et rédigée par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs sociétés savantes. Familles naturelles des genres. Vol. 3. Paris: F. DuFart. 467 pp.
Low, M.E.Y. 2012: Resolving the publication date of J.W. Randall’s Catalogue of Crustacea brought by Thomas Nuttall and J.K. Townsend, from the west coast of North America and the Sandwich Islands, and an updated checklist of the Decapoda described therein (Crustacea: Achelata, Anomura, Astacidea, Brachyura, Caridea, Dendrobranchiata). Zootaxa 3493: 83–88. Preview Reference page.
Low, M.E.Y. 2013: The Decapoda described by Henri Filhol: checklist and dates of publication (Crustacea: Anomura, Brachyura, Caridea). Zootaxa 3636(2): 385–393. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3636.2.9 Reference page.
Low, M.E.Y. 2017. The date of publication of ‘Decapoden-Studien … auf A. B. Meyer’s Sammlungen im ostindischen Archipel’ by Johann Thallwitz and its bearing on decapod nomenclature (Crustacea: Decapoda). Zootaxa 4311(2): 280–282. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4311.2.9. Reference page.
Magris, R.A.; Loureiro Fernandes, L.F. 2011: Diversity and distribution of assemblages of estuarine decapod larvae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura, Brachyura) in tropical southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 2758: 26–42. Preview
Meyer, R.; Martin, J.; Melzer, R.R. 2010: Nucleus patterns of zoea I larvae (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the context of taxonomy. Zootaxa, 2422: 31–42. Preview
Naderloo, R., Ebrahimnezhad, S. & Sari, A. 2015. Annotated checklist of the decapod crustaceans of the Gulf of Oman, northwestern Indian Ocean. Zootaxa 4028(3): 397–412. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4028.3.5. Preview (PDF) Reference page.
Ng, P.K.L.; Eldredge, L.G.; Evenhuis, N.L. 2011: The names of decapod and stomatopod Crustacea from Tahiti, French Polynesia, established by Anthony Curtiss in 1938 and 1944. Zootaxa, 3099: 43–56. Preview
Nunes, D.M., Ferreira, R.C.P., Hazin, F.H.V., Travassos, P. & de Souza-Filho, J.F. 2017. Deep sea decapod crustaceans of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic, Brazil. Zootaxa 4324(2): 331–347. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4324.2.6. Reference page.
Pachelle, P.P.G., Anker, A., Mendes, C.B. & Bezerra, L.E.A. 2016. Decapod crustaceans from the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil: an updated checklist of marine and estuarine species, with 23 new records. Zootaxa 4131(1): 1–63. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4131.1.1. Reference page.
Poore 2004: Marine decapod Crustacea of southern Australia: a guide to identification. Australia: CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0-643-06906-2
Pérez-Reyes, O. et al. 2013: Freshwater decapods of Puerto Rico: a checklist and reports of new localities. Zootaxa 3717(3): 329–344. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3717.3.3 Reference page.
Poupin, J. et al. 2012: Deep-water decapod crustaceans studied with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) in the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia (Crustacea: Decapoda). Zootaxa 3550: 43–60. Preview PDF Reference page.
Poupin, J. & Corbari, L. 2016. A preliminary assessment of the deep-sea Decapoda collected during the KARUBENTHOS 2015 Expedition to Guadeloupe Island. Zootaxa 4190(1): 1–107. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4190.1.1. Reference page.
Poupin, J.; Juncker, M. 2010: A guide to the decapod crustaceans of the South Pacific. Nouméa, New Caledonia: CRISP and CPS. ISBN 978-982-00-0423-8


AToL Decapoda

Vernacular names
беларуская: Дзесяціногія ракападобныя
Deutsch: Zehnfußkrebse
Ελληνικά: Δεκάποδα
español: Decápodos
français: Décapodes
magyar: Tízlábú rákok
italiano: Decapodi
日本語: 十脚目(エビ目)
kurdî: Koma Dehlingan
Nederlands: Tienpotigen
தமிழ்: பத்துக்காலிகள்
Türkçe: On ayaklılar
中文: 十足目

The Decapoda or decapods (literally "ten-footed") are an order of crustaceans within the class Malacostraca, including many familiar groups, such as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, and prawns. Most decapods are scavengers. The order is estimated to contain nearly 15,000 species in around 2,700 genera, with around 3,300 fossil species.[1] Nearly half of these species are crabs, with the shrimp (about 3,000 species) and Anomura including hermit crabs, porcelain crabs, squat lobsters (about 2500 species) making up the bulk of the remainder.[1] The earliest fossils of the group date to the Devonian.
Main article: Decapod anatomy

Decapods can have as many as 38 appendages,[2] arranged in one pair per body segment. As the name Decapoda (from the Greek δέκα, deca-, "ten", and πούς / ποδός, -pod, "foot") implies, ten of these appendages are considered legs. They are the pereiopods, found on the last five thoracic segments.[2] In many decapods, one pair of these "legs" has enlarged pincers, called chelae, with the legs being called chelipeds. In front of the pereiopods are three pairs of maxillipeds that function as feeding appendages. The head has five pairs of appendages, including mouthparts, antennae, and antennules. There are five more pairs of appendages on the abdomen. They are called pleopods. There is one final pair called uropods, which, with the telson, form the tail fan.[2]
"Decapoda" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904

A 2019 molecular clock analysis suggested decapods originated in the Late Ordovician around 455 million years ago, with the Dendrobranchiata (prawns) being the first group to diverge. The remaining group, called Pleocyemata, then diverged between the swimming shrimp groupings and the crawling/walking group called Reptantia, consisting of lobsters and crabs. High species diversification can be traced to the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, which coincides with the rise and spread of modern coral reefs, a key habitat for the decapods.[3] Despite the inferred early origin, the oldest fossils of the group such as Palaeopalaemon only date to the Late Devonian.[4]

The cladogram below results from analysis by Wolfe et al. (2019).[3]


Dendrobranchiata (prawns) Litopenaeus setiferus.png


Stenopodidea (boxer shrimp) Spongicola venustus.png


Caridea (true shrimp) Macrobrachium sp.jpg


Achelata (spiny lobsters, slipper lobsters) Panulirus argus.png

Polychelida (benthic crustaceans)

Astacidea (lobsters, crayfish) Lobster NSRW rotated2.jpg

Axiidea (mud shrimp, ghost shrimp, or burrowing shrimp)

Gebiidea (mud lobsters and mud shrimp)

Anomura (hermit crabs and others) Coenobita variabilis.jpg

Brachyura (crabs) Charybdis japonica.jpg

 (crawling / walking decapods) 


Classification within the order Decapoda depends on the structure of the gills and legs, and the way in which the larvae develop, giving rise to two suborders: Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata. The Dendrobranchiata consist of prawns, including many species colloquially referred to as "shrimp", such as the "white shrimp", Litopenaeus setiferus. The Pleocyemata include the remaining groups, including "true shrimp".[5] Those groups that usually walk rather than swim (Pleocyemata, excluding Stenopodidea and Caridea) form a clade called Reptantia.[6]

This classification to the level of superfamilies follows De Grave et al.[1]

Order Decapoda Latreille, 1802

  • Suborder Dendrobranchiata Bate, 1888
    • Penaeoidea Rafinesque, 1815
    • Sergestoidea Dana, 1852
  • Suborder Pleocyemata Burkenroad, 1963
    • Infraorder Stenopodidea Bate, 1888
    • Infraorder Caridea Dana, 1852
      • Procaridoidea Chace & Manning, 1972
      • Galatheacaridoidea Vereshchaka, 1997
      • Pasiphaeoidea Dana, 1852
      • Oplophoroidea Dana, 1852
      • Atyoidea De Haan, 1849
      • Bresilioidea Calman, 1896
      • Nematocarcinoidea Smith, 1884
      • Psalidopodoidea Wood-....., 1874
      • Stylodactyloidea Bate, 1888
      • Campylonotoidea Sollaud, 1913
      • Palaemonoidea Rafinesque, 1815
      • Alpheoidea Rafinesque, 1815
      • Processoidea Ortmann, 1896
      • Pandaloidea Haworth, 1825
      • Physetocaridoidea Chace, 1940
      • Crangonoidea Haworth, 1825
    • Infraorder Astacidea Latreille, 1802
      • Enoplometopoidea de Saint Laurent, 1988
      • Nephropoidea Dana, 1852
      • Astacoidea Latreille, 1802
      • Parastacoidea Huxley, 1879
    • Infraorder Glypheidea Winckler, 1882
      • Glypheoidea Winckler, 1882
    • Infraorder Axiidea de Saint Laurent, 1979b
    • Infraorder Gebiidea de Saint Laurent, 1979
    • Infraorder Achelata Scholtz & Richter, 1995
    • Infraorder Polychelida Scholtz & Richter, 1995
    • Infraorder Anomura MacLeay, 1838
      • Aegloidea Dana, 1852
      • Galatheoidea Samouelle, 1819
      • Hippoidea Latreille, 1825a
      • Chirostyloidea Ortmann, 1892
      • Lithodoidea Samouelle, 1819
      • Lomisoidea Bouvier, 1895
      • Paguroidea Latreille, 1802
    • Infraorder Brachyura Linnaeus, 1758
      • Section Dromiacea De Haan, 1833
        • Dromioidea De Haan, 1833
        • Homolodromioidea Alcock, 1900
        • Homoloidea De Haan, 1839
      • Section Raninoida De Haan, 1839
      • Section Cyclodorippoida Ortmann, 1892
      • Section Eubrachyura de Saint Laurent, 1980
        • Subsection Heterotremata Guinot, 1977
          • Aethroidea Dana, 1851
          • Bellioidea Dana, 1852
          • Bythograeoidea Williams, 1980
          • Calappoidea De Haan, 1833
          • Cancroidea Latreille, 1802
          • Carpilioidea Ortmann, 1893
          • Cheiragonoidea Ortmann, 1893
          • Corystoidea Samouelle, 1819
          • Dairoidea Serène, 1965
          • Dorippoidea MacLeay, 1838
          • Eriphioidea MacLeay, 1838
          • Gecarcinucoidea Rathbun, 1904
          • Goneplacoidea MacLeay, 1838
          • Hexapodoidea Miers, 1886
          • Leucosioidea Samouelle, 1819
          • Majoidea Samouelle, 1819
          • Orithyioidea Dana, 1852c
          • Palicoidea Bouvier, 1898
          • Parthenopoidea MacLeay,
          • Pilumnoidea Samouelle, 1819
          • Portunoidea Rafinesque, 1815
          • Potamoidea Ortmann, 1896
          • Pseudothelphusoidea Ortmann, 1893
          • Pseudozioidea Alcock, 1898
          • Retroplumoidea Gill, 1894
          • Trapezioidea Miers, 1886
          • Trichodactyloidea H. Milne-Edwards, 1853
          • Xanthoidea MacLeay, 1838
        • Subsection Thoracotremata Guinot, 1977
          • Cryptochiroidea Paul'son, 1875
          • Grapsoidea MacLeay, 1838
          • Ocypodoidea Rafinesque, 1815
          • Pinnotheroidea De Haan, 1833

See also

iconCrustaceans portaliconArthropods portal

List of Atlantic decapod species
Phylogeny of Malacostraca


Sammy De Grave; N. Dean Pentcheff; Shane T. Ahyong; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06.
"Decapoda characters and anatomy". University of Bristol: Decapoda characters. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
Wolfe, Joanna M.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Crandall, Keith A.; Lemmon, Alan R.; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Timm, Laura E.; et al. (24 April 2019). "A phylogenomic framework, evolutionary timeline, and genomic resources for comparative studies of decapod crustaceans". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 286 (1901). doi:10.1098/rspb.2019.0079. PMC 6501934. PMID 31014217.
Gueriau, Pierre; Rak, Štěpán; Broda, Krzysztof; Kumpan, Tomáš; Viktorýn, Tomáš; Valach, Petr; Zatoń, Michał; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Luque, Javier (2020-10-25). "Exceptional Late Devonian arthropods document the origin of decapod crustaceans". doi:10.1101/2020.10.23.352971.
Elena Mente (2008). Reproductive Biology of Crustaceans: Case Studies of Decapod Crustaceans. Science Publishers. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-57808-529-3.
G. Scholtz; S. Richter (1995). "Phylogenetic systematics of the reptantian Decapoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 113 (3): 289–328. doi:10.1006/zjls.1995.0011.


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