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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Cladus: Pancrustacea
Superclassis: Multicrustacea
Classis: Malacostraca
Subclassis: Eumalacostraca
Superordo: Eucarida
Ordo: Decapoda
Subordo: Pleocyemata
Infraordines: Achelata - Anomura - Astacidea - Axiidea - Brachyura - Caridea - Gebiidea - Glypheidea - Polychelida - Stenopodidea

[list of infraordines after De Grave et al. (2009)]

Pleocyemata Burkenroad, 1963

De Grave, S., Pentcheff, N.D., Ahyong, S.T., Chan T-Y., Crandall, K.A., Dworschak, P.C., Felder, D.L., Feldmann, R.M., Fransen, C.H.J.M., Goulding, L.Y.D., Lemaitre, R., Low, M.E.Y., Martin, J.W., Ng, P.K.L., Schweitzer, C.E., Tan, S.H., Tshudy, D. & Wetzer, R. 2009. A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 21: 1–109. PDF. Reference page.
Karasawa, H.; Schweitzer, C.E.; Feldmann, R.M. 2013: Phylogeny and systematics of extant and extinct lobsters. Journal of crustacean biology, 33 (1): 78–123. DOI: 10.1163/1937240X-00002111

Additional references

Burkenroad, M. D. 1963: The evolution of the Eucarida (Crustacea, Eumalacostraca) in relation to the fossil record. Tulane studies in geology, 2: 3–16.
Webber, W.R. et al. 2010: [Chapter] EIGHT Phylum ARTHROPODA SUBPHYLUM CRUSTACEA shrimps, crabs, lobsters, barnacles, slaters, and kin. Pp. 98-232 in Gordon, D.P. (ed.): New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume 2. Kingdom Animalia. Chaetognatha, Ecdysozoa, ichnofossils. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-87725793-3

Vernacular names
中文: 腹胚亚目

Pleocyemata is a suborder of decapod crustaceans, erected by Martin Burkenroad in 1963.[1] Burkenroad's classification replaced the earlier sub-orders of Natantia and Reptantia with the monophyletic groups Dendrobranchiata (prawns) and Pleocyemata. Pleocyemata contains all the members of the Reptantia (including crabs, lobsters, crayfish, and others), as well as the Stenopodidea (which contains the so-called "boxer shrimp" or "barber-pole shrimp"), and Caridea, which contains the true shrimp.

All members of the Pleocyemata are united by a number of features, the most important of which is that the fertilised eggs are incubated by the female, and remain stuck to the pleopods (swimming legs) until the zoea larvae are ready to hatch. It is this characteristic that gives the group its name. Pleocyemata also possess a lamellar gill structure as opposed to the branches found in the Dendrobranchiata.

The cladogram below shows Pleocyemata as the sister clade to Dendrobranchiata within the larger order Decapoda, from analysis by Wolfe et al., 2019.[2]


Dendrobranchiata (prawns)


Stenopodidea (boxer shrimp)


Caridea (true shrimp)

Reptantia (crawling/walking decapods)

Achelata (spiny lobsters, slipper lobsters)

Polychelida (benthic crustaceans)

Astacidea (lobsters, crayfish)

Axiidea (mud shrimp, ghost shrimp, or burrowing shrimp)

Gebiidea (mud lobsters and mud shrimp)

Anomura (hermit crabs and others)

Brachyura (crabs)

Pleocyemata comprises the following infraorders:[3]

Stenopodidea (stenopodidean shrimp)
Caridea (caridean shrimp)
Achelata (spiny, slipper, and furry lobsters)
Polychelida (benthic crustaceans)
Glypheidea (glypheoid lobsters)
Astacidea (true lobsters, reef lobsters, and crayfish)
Axiidea (mud lobsters and ghost shrimp)
Gebiidea (mud lobsters and mud shrimp)
Anomura (squat lobsters, hermit crabs, and relatives)
Brachyura (true crabs)

The earliest fossil representative is the Devonian Palaeopalaemon.[4]

Burkenroad, M. D. (1963). "The evolution of the Eucarida (Crustacea, Eumalacostraca), in relation to the fossil record". Tulane Studies in Geology. 2 (1): 1–17.
Wolfe, Joanna M.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Crandall, Keith A.; Lemmon, Alan R.; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Timm, Laura E.; Siddall, Mark E.; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D. (24 April 2019). "A phylogenomic framework, evolutionary timeline and genomic resources for comparative studies of decapod crustaceans". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 286 (1901). doi:10.1098/rspb.2019.0079. PMC 6501934. PMID 31014217.
Sammy De Grave; N. Dean Pentcheff; Shane T. Ahyong; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109.
Robert P. D. Crean (November 14, 2004). "Order Decapoda: Fossil record and evolution". University of Bristol. Archived from the original on February 29, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2010.


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