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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Cladus: Pancrustacea
Superclassis: Multicrustacea
Classis: Malacostraca
Subclassis: Eumalacostraca
Superordo: Eucarida
Ordo: Decapoda
Subordo: Pleocyemata
Infraordo: Gebiidea

Thalassinidea (in part)


Dworschak, P.C. & Poore, G.C.B. 2018. More cautionary tales: family, generic and species synonymies of recently published taxa of ghost and mud shrimps (Decapoda: Axiidea and Gebiidea). Zootaxa 4394(1): 61–76. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4394.1.3 full article (PDF) Reference page.

Gebiidea is an infraorder of decapod crustaceans. Gebiidea and Axiidea are divergent infraoders of the former infraorder Thalassinidea. These infraorders have converged ecologically and morphologically as burrowing forms.[1] Based on molecular evidence as of 2009, it is now widely believed that these two infraorders represent two distinct lineages separate from one another. Since this is a recent change, much of the literature and research surrounding these infraorders still refers to the Axiidea and Gebiidea in combination as "thalassinidean" for the sake of clarity and reference.[1] This division based on molecular evidence is consistent with the groupings proposed by Robert Gurney in 1938 based on larval developmental stages.[2]

The infraorder Gebiidea belongs to the clade Reptantia, which consists of the walking/crawling decapods (lobsters and crabs). The cladogram below shows Gebiidea's placement within the larger order Decapoda, from analysis by Wolfe et al., 2019.[3]


Dendrobranchiata (prawns)


Stenopodidea (boxer shrimp)


Caridea (true shrimp)

Reptantia (crawling/walking decapods)

Achelata (spiny lobsters, slipper lobsters)

Polychelida (benthic crustaceans)

Astacidea (lobsters, crayfish)

Axiidea (mud shrimp, ghost shrimp, or burrowing shrimp)

Gebiidea (mud lobsters and mud shrimp)

Anomura (hermit crabs and others)

Brachyura (crabs)

Gebiidea comprises the following families:[4]

Axianassidae Schmitt, 1924
Laomediidae Borradaile, 1903
Thalassinidae Latreille, 1831
Upogebiidae Borradaile, 1903

However, Axianassidae is sometimes considered to be a junior synonym of Laomediidae.[5][6]

Dworschak, Peter C. (2012). Treatise on Zoology - Anatomy, Taxonomy, Biology. The Crustacea, Volume 9 Part B. BRILL. pp. 109–100. ISBN 9789047430179.
Pohle, G. and Santana, W., Gebiidea and Axiidea (=Thalassinidea), in Atlas of Crustacean Larvae, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2014, pp. 263–271.
Wolfe, Joanna M.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Crandall, Keith A.; Lemmon, Alan R.; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Timm, Laura E.; Siddall, Mark E.; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D. (24 April 2019). "A phylogenomic framework, evolutionary timeline and genomic resources for comparative studies of decapod crustaceans". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 286 (1901). doi:10.1098/rspb.2019.0079. PMID 31014217.
Sammy De Grave; N. Dean Pentcheff; Shane T. Ahyong; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06.
"Axianassidae Schmitt, 1924". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. 2023. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
Kensley, Brian; Heard, Richard (25 September 1990). "THE GENUS AXIANASSA (CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA: THALASSINIDEA) IN THE AMERICAS" (PDF). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 103 (3): 558–572.


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