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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Superclassis: Multicrustacea
Classis: Malacostraca
Subclassis: Eumalacostraca
Superordo: Eucarida
Ordo: Decapoda
Subordo: Pleocyemata
Infraordo: Stenopodidea
Familiae: Macromaxillocarididae - Spongiocolidae - Stenopodidae


Stenopodidea Bate, 1888

Primary references

Bate, C.S., 1888: Report on the Crustacea Macrura collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the Years 1873–76. In: Murray, J., Zoology. Wyville Thomson, C. & J. Murray, Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873–76 Under the Command of Captain George S. Nares, R.N., F.R.S. and the Late Captain Frank Tourle Thomson, R.N. Vol. 24. Edinburgh, Neill and Company. Pp. i–xc, 1–942, Plates 1–157.

cited sources

De Grave, S., Pentcheff, N.D., Ahyong, S.T., Chan T-Y., Crandall, K.A., Dworschak, P.C., Felder, D.L., Feldmann, R.M., Fransen, C.H.J.M., Goulding, L.Y.D., Lemaitre, R., Low, M.E.Y., Martin, J.W., Ng, P.K.L., Schweitzer, C.E., Tan, S.H., Tshudy, D. & Wetzer, R. 2009. A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 21: 1–109. PDF. Reference page.

Additional references

Alvarez, F.; Iliffe, T.M.; Villalobos, J.L. 2006: Macromaxillocarididae, a new family of stenopodidean shrimp from an anchialine cave in the Bahamas, with the description of Macromaxillocaris bahamaensis, n. gen., n. sp. Journal of crustacean biology, 26: 366–378. DOI: 10.1651/C-2658.1
Pachelle, A.P.G., Leray, M., Anker, A. & Lasley, R.. 2018. Five new records of marine shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea, Stenopodidea) from the Caribbean coast of Panama. Zootaxa 4438(1): 128–136. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4438.1.5 Paywall Reference page.
Webber, W.R. et al. 2010: [Chapter] EIGHT Phylum ARTHROPODA SUBPHYLUM CRUSTACEA shrimps, crabs, lobsters, barnacles, slaters, and kin. Pp. 98-232 in Gordon, D.P. (ed.): New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume 2. Kingdom Animalia. Chaetognatha, Ecdysozoa, ichnofossils. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-87725793-3

Vernacular names
中文: 猬虾下目

The Stenopodidea or boxer shrimps are a small group of decapod crustaceans. Often confused with Caridea shrimp or Dendrobranchiata prawns, they are neither, belonging to their own group.

They can be differentiated from the Dendrobranchiata prawns by their lack of branching gills, and by the fact that they brood their eggs instead of directly releasing them into the water. They differ from the Caridea shrimp by their greatly enlarged third pair of legs.[1]

Stenopodidea belongs to the order Decapoda, and is most closely related to the Caridea and Procarididea infraorders of shrimp. The cladogram below shows Stenopodidea's relationships to other relatives within Decapoda, from analysis by Wolfe et al., 2019.[2]


Dendrobranchiata (prawns) Litopenaeus setiferus.png


Stenopodidea (boxer shrimp) Spongicola venustus.png


Caridea (true shrimp) Macrobrachium sp.jpg

Reptantia (crawling/walking decapods)

Achelata (spiny lobsters, slipper lobsters) Panulirus argus.png

Polychelida (benthic crustaceans)

Astacidea (lobsters, crayfish) Lobster NSRW rotated2.jpg

Axiidea (mud shrimp, ghost shrimp, or burrowing shrimp)

Gebiidea (mud lobsters and mud shrimp)

Anomura (hermit crabs and others) Coenobita variabilis.jpg

Brachyura (crabs) Charybdis japonica.jpg

There are 71 extant species currently recognized within Stenopodidea, divided into 12 genera.[3] Three fossil species are also recognized, each belonging to a separate genus.[4][5] The earliest fossil assigned to the Stenopodidea is Devonostenopus pennsylvaniensis from the Devonian.[5] Until D. pennsylvaniensis was discovered, the oldest known member of the group was Jilinicaris chinensis from the Late Cretaceous.[6]

The cladogram below shows Stenopodidea's internal relationships:[2]





Stenopodidea comprises the following families and genera:

Macromaxillocarididae Alvarez, Iliffe & Villalobos, 2006
Macromaxillocaris Alvarez, Iliffe & Villalobos, 2006
Spongicolidae Schram, 1986
Engystenopus Alcock & Anderson, 1894
Globospongicola Komai & Saito, 2006
Jilinicaris † Schram, Shen, Vonk & Taylor, 2000
Microprosthema Stimpson, 1860
Paraspongicola De Saint Laurent & Cléva, 1981
Spongicola De Haan, 1844
Spongicoloides Hansen, 1908
Spongiocaris Bruce & Baba, 1973
Stenopodidae Claus, 1872
Devonostenopus † Jones et al., 2014
Juxtastenopus Goy, 2010
Odontozona Holthuis, 1946
Phoenice † Garassino, 2001
Richardina A. Milne-Edwards, 1881
Stenopus Latreille, 1819


Raymond T. Bauer (2004). "What is a caridean shrimp?". Remarkable Shrimps: Adaptations and Natural History of the Carideans. Animal Natural History Series. Vol. 7. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 3–14. ISBN 978-0-8061-3555-7.
Wolfe, Joanna M.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Crandall, Keith A.; Lemmon, Alan R.; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Timm, Laura E.; Siddall, Mark E.; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D. (24 April 2019). "A phylogenomic framework, evolutionary timeline and genomic resources for comparative studies of decapod crustaceans". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 286 (1901). doi:10.1098/rspb.2019.0079. PMC 6501934. PMID 31014217.
S. De Grave & C. H. J. M. Fransen (2011). "Carideorum Catalogus: the Recent species of the dendrobranchiate, stenopodidean, procarididean and caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda)". Zoologische Mededelingen. 85 (9): 195–589, figs. 1–59. ISBN 978-90-6519-200-4. Archived from the original on 2012-12-20.
Sammy De Grave; N. Dean Pentcheff; Shane T. Ahyong; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109.
Wade T. Jones; Rodney M. Feldmann; Carrie E. Schweitzer; Frederick R. Schram; Rose-Anna Behr & Kristen L. Hand (2014). "The first Paleozoic stenopodidean from the Huntley Mountain Formation (Devonian–Carboniferous), north-central Pennsylvania". Journal of Paleontology. 88 (6): 1251–1256. doi:10.1666/13-059.
Frederick R. Shram; Shen Yanbin; Ronald Vonk & Rodney S. Taylor (2000). "The first fossil stenopodidean" (PDF). Crustaceana. 73 (2): 235–242. doi:10.1163/156854000504183.


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