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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Antliophora
Ordo: Mecoptera

Familia: Bittacidae
Genera: AnabittacusAnomalobittacusApterobittacus – Archebittacus – Austrobittacus – Bicaubittacus – Bittacus – Edriobittacus – Eremobittacus – Harpobittacus – Hylobittacus – Issikiella – Kalobittacus – Nannobittacus – Orobittacus – Pazius – Symbittacus – Terrobittacus – Tytthobittacus – †Antiquanabittacus – †Assiobittacus – †Compsoibittacus – †Cretobittacus – †Formosibittacus – †Liaobittacus – †Jurahylobittacus – †Megabittacus – †Megolbittacus – †Mongolbittacus – †Orthobittacus – †Palaeobittacus – †Plessiobittacus – †Probittacus – †Prohylobittacus – †Sharabittacus – †Sibirobittacus – †Telobittacus
Name

Bittacidae Handlirsch, 1906
References

Handlirsch, A. 1906–1908. Die fossilen Insekten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen. Ein Handbuch für Paläontologen und Zoologen. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. 1430 pp. [1906: pp. 1–640, 1907: pp. 641–1120, 1908: pp. 1120–1430]. BHL Reference page.
Byers, G.W. 1986: A new Australian genus of Bittacidae (Mecoptera). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 22: 165–168.
Lambkin, K.J. 2017. Archebittacus exilis Riek—the oldest hangingfly (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae). Zootaxa 4290(2): 385–389. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4290.2.10. Reference page.
Li, Y.-L.; Ren, D.; Shih, C.-K. 2008: Two Middle Jurassic hanging-flies (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from Northeast China. Zootaxa, 1929: 38–46. Abstract & excerpt
Liu, S.; Shih, C.; Ren, D. 2014: Four new species of hangingflies (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China. ZooKeys 466: 77–94. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.466.8047 Reference page.
Liu, S-L., Shih, C-K., Bashkuev, A. & Ren, D. 2016. New Jurassic Hangingflies (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from Inner Mongolia, China. Zootaxa 4067(1): 65–78. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4067.1.5. Reference page.
Machado, R.J.P.; Godoi, F.S.P.; Rafael, J.A. 2009: Neotropical Mecoptera (Insecta): new generic synonymies, new combinations, key to families and genera, and checklist of species. Zootaxa, 2148: 27–38. Abstract & excerpt
Petrulevičius, J.F.; Huang, D.-y.; Ren, D. 2007: A new hangingfly (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. African invertebrates, 48: 145–152. PDF
Petrulevičius, J.F.; Jarzembowski, E.A. 2004: The first hangingfly (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from the Cretaceous of Europe. Journal of paleontology, 78: 1198–1201. DOI: 10.1666/0022-3360(2004)078<1198:TFHIMB>2.0.CO;2
Tan, J.-l.; Hua, B.-z. 2009: Bicaubittacus, a new genus of the Oriental Bittacidae (Mecoptera) with descriptions of two new species. Zootaxa, 2221: 27–40. Abstract & excerpt
Tan, J.; Hua, B. 2009: Terrobittacus, a new genus of the Chinese Bittacidae (Mecoptera) with descriptions of two new species. Journal of natural history, 43: 2937–2954. DOI: 10.1080/00222930903359628

Links

Australian Faunal Directory

Vernacular names
日本語: ガガンボモドキ科
中文: 蚊蝎蛉科

Bittacidae is a family of scorpionflies commonly called hangingflies or hanging scorpionflies.

The genus Bittacus, comprising approximately 75% of all species within the family, occurs worldwide. Other genera are mostly confined to South America or Australia. Members of this family may be confused with crane flies, in the order Diptera, but can be distinguished by their two pairs of wings and lack of halteres.

They are distinguished in the fact that during mating the male captures a prey insect and offers it to the female as a nuptial gift. The larger the prey item is, the more receptive the female will be to mating.[1]
Genera

This list is based on The World Checklist of extant Mecoptera Species.[2] Presumably complete up to 1997, it is updated as needed. The number of species in each genus are in parentheses. A number of extinct(†) genera have been described from the fossil record.

Anabittacus (1) Kimmins, 1929 (Chile)
Anomalobittacus (1) Kimmins, 1928 (South Africa)
Apterobittacus (1) MacLachlan, 1893 (Southern United States)
Austrobittacus (1) Riek, 1954 (Australia)
Bittacus (124) Latreille, 1805 (worldwide)
Edriobittacus (1) Byers, 1974 (Australia)
Harpobittacus (12) Gerstaecker, 1885 (Australia)
Hylobittacus (1) Byers, 1979 (United States, Mexico + fossil species from the Eocene Bitterfield and Baltic amber of Europe)
Issikiella (5) Byers, 1972 (South America)
Kalobittacus (8) Esben-Petersen, 1914 (Central America)
Nannobittacus (4) Esben-Petersen, 1927 (Brazil to Panama)
Neobittacus (2) Esben-Petersen, 1914 (Brazil)
Orobittacus Villegas & Byers, 1982 (California)
Pazius (8) Navás, 1913 (Brazil to Panama)
Symbittacus Byers, 1986 (Australia)
Tytthobittacus Smithers, 1973 (Australia + fossil species from the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) aged Purbeck Group)

Extinct genera

†Antiquanabittacus (1) Petrulevicius and Jarzembowski 2004 Weald Clay, United Kingdom, Early Cretaceous (Barremian)
†Archebittacus (1) Riek, 1955 (Mount Crosby Formation, Australia, Late Triassic (Norian)[3]
†Asiobittacus (1) Novokshonov 1993 Sagul Formation, Kyrgyzstan, Early Jurassic (Toarcian)
†Baissobittacus (1) Novokshonov 1997 Zaza Formation, Russia, Early Cretaceous (Aptian)
†Burmobittacus (1) Zhao et al. 2016 Burmese amber, Myanmar, mid Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian)
†Composibittacus (2) Liu et al. 2016 Daohugou, China, Middle Jurassic (Callovian)
†Cretobittacus (1) Novokshonov 1993 Zaza Formation, Russia, Aptian
†Decoribittacus (2) Li and Ren 2009 Daohugou, China, Callovian
†Exilibittacus (3) Yang et al. 2012 Daohugou, China, Callovian
†Formosibittacus (1) Li, Ren & Shih, 2008 Daohugou, China, Callovian[4]
†Haplobittacus (1) Bode 1953 Posidonia Shale, Germany, Toarcian)
†Jurahylobittacus (1) Li, Ren & Shih, 2008 Daohugou, China, Callovian[4]
†Karattacus (2) Novokshonov 1997 Daohugou, China, Callovian Karabastau Formation, Kazakhstan, Late Jurassic
†Liaobittacus (1) Ren 1993 Haifanggou Formation, China, Callovian
†Mesobittacus (4) Handlirsch 1939 Posidonia Shale, "Green Series", Germany, Toarcian, Itat Formation, Russia, Middle Jurassic (Bathonian)
†Mongolbittacus (3) Petrulevicius, Huang & Ren, 2007 Daohugou, China, Callovian[5]
†Neorthophlebia (12) Handlirsch 1906 Dzhil Formation, Kyrgyzstan, Early Jurassic (Hettangian-Sinemurian) Posidonia Shale, "Green Series", Germany, Sulyukta Formation, Kyrgyzstan, Toarcian, Tugnuy Formation, Russia, Upper Jurassic, Tuodian Formation, China, Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)
†Orobittacus (2) Villegas and Byers 1981 Karabastau Formation, Kazakhstan, Late Jurassic, Sharteg, Mongolia, Late Jurassic (Tithonian)
†Orthobittacus (4) Willmann 1989 Kyzyl-Kiya, Kyrgyzstan, Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian), Daohugou, China, Callovian, Karabastau Formation, Kazakhstan, Late Jurassic
†Palaeobittacus (1) Carpenter 1928 Green River Formation, Colorado, Eocene
†Parabittacus (2) Handlirsch 1939 Posidonia Shale, "Green Series", Germany, Toarcian
†Pleobittacus (1) Bode 1953 Posidonia Shale, Germany, Toarcian
†Plesiobittacus (1) Novokshonov 1997 Sagul Formation, Kyrgyzstan, Toarcian
†Preanabittacus (2) Novokshonov 1993 Daohugou, China, Callovian Karabastau Formation, Kazakhstan, Late Jurassic
†Probittacus (1) Martynov 1927 Karabastau Formation, Kazakhstan, Late Jurassic
†Prohylobittacus (1) Novokshonov 1993 Karabastau Formation, Kazakhstan, Late Jurassic
†Scharabittacus (3) Novokshonov 1993 Karabastau Formation, Kazakhstan, Late Jurassic Sharteg, Mongolia, Tithonian
†Sibirobittacus (3) Sukacheva 1990 Karabastau Formation, Kazakhstan, Late Jurassic Glushkovo Formation, Russia, Tithonian, Yixian Formation, China, Aptian

References

Gao, Qionghua; Hua, Baozhen (3 December 2013). "Co-Evolution of the Mating Position and Male Genitalia in Insects: A Case Study of a Hangingfly". PLOS ONE. 8 (12): e80651. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...880651G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080651. PMC 3849121. PMID 24312490.
"World Checklist of extant Mecoptera Species – Bittacidae (Hanging-flies)". California Academy of Sciences, Department of Entomology. 31 October 1997. Archived from the original on 2005-04-08.
Kevin J. Lambkin (2017). "Archebittacus exilis Riek—the oldest hangingfly (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae)". Zootaxa. 4290 (2): 385–389. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4290.2.10.
Li, Y-L.; Ren, D.; Shih, C-K (2008). "Two Middle Jurassic hanging-flies (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from Northeast China" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1929: 38–46. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1929.1.2. ISSN 1175-5334.
Petrulevicius, J. F.; Huang, D-Y.; Ren, D. (2007). "A new hangingfly (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China" (PDF). African Invertebrates. 48 (1): 145–152. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-21. Retrieved 2011-08-29.

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