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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Heteroptera
Infraordo: Pentatomomorpha
Superfamilia: Pentatomoidea

Familia: Cydnidae
Subfamiliae (6): Amaurocorinae - Amnestinae - Cephalocteinae - Cydninae - Garsauriinae - Sehirinae
Amnestinae - Cephalocteinae - ?Corimelaeninae - Cydninae -

Overview of genera (98)

Adomerus – Adrisa – Aethoscytus – Aethus – Afroropus – Afroscytus – Alonips – Amaurocoris – Amnestus – Angra – Atarsocoris – Blaena – Blaenocoris – Byrsinocoris – Byrsinus – Canthophorus – Centrostephus – Cephalocteus – Chilocoris – Choerocydnus – Coleocydnus – Croscistethus – Cydnochoerus – Cydnotomus – Cydnus – Cyrtomenus – Dallasiellus – Dearcla – Ectinopus – Endotylus – Eulonips – Exosehirus – Fromundiellus – Fromundus – Gampsotes – Garsauria – Garsauriella – Geocnethus – Geopeltus – Geotomus – Heissocteus – Hemixesta – Hiverus – Katakadia – Lactistes – Lalervis – Lattinestus – Legnotus – Linospa – Macroporus – Macroscytus – Megacydnus – Melanaethus – Mesocricus – Microporus – Microscytus – Nishadana – Nishocoris – Ochetostethomorpha – Ochetostethus – Onalips – Pangaeus – Parachilocoris – Paraethus – Paranishadana – Peltoscytus – Peltoxys – Peribyssus – Plonisa – Prokne – Prolactistes – Prolobodes – Pseudonalips – Pseudoscoparipes – Pseudostibaropus – Pullneya – Raunoloma – Rhytidoporus – Scaptocoris – Schiodtella – Scoparipes – Scoparipoides – Sehirus – Shansia – Shillukea – Singeria – Stibaropus – Tacolus – Teabooma – Tominotus – Tritomegas – †Cilicydnus – †Clavicoris – †Latiscutella – †Meropachys – †Orienicydnus – †Paleofroeschnerius – †Pricecoris

Cydnidae Billberg, 1820
Type genus: Cydnus Fabricius, 1803

selected references

Dolling, W.R. 1981: A rationalized classification of the burrower bugs (Cydnidae). Systematic entomology, 6(1): 61–76. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.1981.tb00016.x
Kłys, G.; Lis, J.A. 2013: First cave records for Palearctic burrower bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae) from Tajikistan, with a checklist of the World Cydnidae associated with caves. Zootaxa 3686(4): 493–496. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3686.4.7 Reference page.
Lis, J.A. 2002: Burrower bugs described after the Old World catalogue of the family (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae). Polish journal of entomology, 71: 7–17. [Publication date: '29 March 2002', sourced from first page of article] PDF
Lis, J.A.; Heyna, J. 2001: Metathoracic wings venation in Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and its bearing on the classification of the family. Annales zoologici, 51(4): 429–465. abstract only seen
Lis, J.A.; Hohol-Kilinkiewicz, A. 2001: Abdominal trichobothrial pattern and its taxonomic and phylogenetic significance in Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). II. Amnestinae and Garsauriinae. Annales zoologici, 51(4): 467–471. abstract only seen
Lis, J.A.; Schaefer, C.W. 2005: Tibial combs in the Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and their functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. Journal of zoological systematics and evolutionary research, 43(4): 277–283. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0469.2005.00328.x
Lis, J.A.; Ziaja, D.J. 2010: Pretarsal structures in the family Cydnidae sensu lato (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea). Zootaxa, 2545: 23–32. Preview
Pluot-Sigwalt, D.; Lis, J.A. 2008: Morphology of the spermatheca in the Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): bearing of its diversity on classification and phylogeny. European journal of entomology, 105(2): 279–312. abstract and pdf

Additional references

Froeschner, R.C. 1960: Cydnidae of the Western Hemisphere. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 111: 337–673. BHL
Ghahari, H.; Chérot, F.; Linnavuori, R.E.; Ostovan, H. 2009: Annotated catalogue of Iranian burrower bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomoidea, Cydnidae). ZooKeys, 26: 1–31. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.26.214
Lis, J.A. 1999: Burrower bugs of the Old World - a catalogue (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae). Genus, 10(2): 165–249. [Publication date: '30 VI 1999', sourced from first page of article]


Lis, J.A. 1997: Studies on the Cydnidae of the Australian region XI. A review of species from New Caledonia, with descriptions of Chilocoris neocaledonicus n. sp. and Macroscytus matilei n. sp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Genus, 8(3-4): 591–602. PDF
Lis, J.A. 1999: Geopeltus neocaledonicus n. sp. from New Caledonia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae). Genus, 10(1): 29–31. PDF
Lis, J.A.; Lis, B. 2010: Teabooma secunda (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae)—a new species of a New Caledonian endemic genus, with a redescription of T. princeps Distant. Zootaxa, 2543: 64–68. Preview

Lis, J.A.; Zack, R.S. 2010: A review of burrower bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae sensu lato) of Guam. Zootaxa, 2523: 57–64. Preview
Lis, J.A., Lis, B.J. & Ziaja, D.J. 2016. In BOLD we trust? A commentary on the reliability of specimen identification for DNA barcoding: a case study on burrower bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae). Zootaxa 4114(1): 83–86. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4114.1.6. Reference page.
Marco A., M.; del Carmen Coscarón, M. 2011: Burrower bugs described after the Cydnidae of the Western–Hemisphere catalogue 1960 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae). Zootaxa, 2766: 57–63. Preview
Popov, Yu.A.; Pinto, I.D. 2000: On some Mesozoic burrower bugs (Heteroptera: Cydnidae). Paleontological journal, 34(suppl. 3): 298–302. [not seen]


Catalogue of Life: 2012 Annual Checklist [very incomplete!]
EoL [very incomplete!]

Vernacular names
English: burrower bugs
suomi: Piiloluteet

Cydnidae are a family of shield bugs, known by common names including burrowing bugs or burrower bugs.[2]

In Goiás (Brazil) the flocks are observed in the rainy season, November to March, which coincide with the period in which adults of these insects are found in the soil. Currently the southwestern region of Goiás is the most attacked (Mineiros, Chapadão do Céu, Rio Verde and Jataí), south and southeast, in cotton, soybean, maize and pasture crops. Among the damages caused by the insect in the plant are: uneven growth of the plant, reduced growth, root lesions, large amount of dry leaves, reddish leaf, yellowing and subsequent dry; reduction of the stand, yellowing of the leaves and reduction of productivity.
Subfamilies and taxonomy

BioLib includes the following subfamilies:

Amnestinae Hart, 1919
Amnestus Dallas, 1851
Lattinestus Eger, 2008
Cephalocteninae Mulsant & Rey, 1866
Cephaloctenini Mulsant & Rey, 1866
Cephalocteus Dufour, 1834
Heissocteus Lis, 2006
Scaptocorini Froeschner, 1960
Afroropus Lis, 1999
Atarsocoris Becker, 1967
Pseudostibaropus Lis, 1991
Scaptocoris Perty, 1833
Schiodtella Signoret, 1882
Stibaropus Dallas, 1851
Cydninae Billberg, 1820
Garsauriinae Froeschner, 1960
Garsauria Walker, 1868
Garsauriella Linnavuori, 1993
Sehirinae Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843
†Clavicorinae Popov, 1986

In some older classifications, Cydnidae sensu lato includes the subfamily Thyreocorinae (now a separate family, Thyreocoridae), which are known commonly as "negro bugs" (early name to be avoided), or "ebony bugs", and/or the families Thaumastellidae and Parastrachiidae.[3][4] Though similar in appearance to a beetle at casual glance, they can be distinguished by both their piercing/sucking mouthparts, and wing configuration (beetle elytra are split directly down the back of the insect). Of some 750 species of burrower bugs, 27 are reported as crop pests, and six species are thought to feed on peanut.
Fossil genera

Subfamily Amnestinae Hart 1919
†Chilamnestocoris Lis et al. 2018 Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
†Cilicydnus Yao et al. 2007 Yixian Formation, China, Aptian
†Latiscutella Pinto and de Ornellas 1974 Crato Formation, Codó Formation, Brazil, Aptian
†Orienicydnus Yao et al. 2007 Yixian Formation, China, Aptian
†Pricecoris Pinto and de Ornellas 1974 Codo Formation, Brazil, Aptian
†Punctacorona Wang et al. 2019, Burmese amber, Myanmar, Cenomanian
†subfamily Clavicorinae Popov 1986
†Clavicoris Popov 1986 Gurvan-Eren Formation, Mongolia, Aptian
†Cretacoris Popov 1986 Gurvan-Eren Formation, Mongolia, Aptian, Daya Formation, Russia, Hauterivian
Subfamily Sehirinae Amyot and Audinet-Serville 1843
†Eocenocydnus Popov 2019, Bembridge Marls, United Kingdom, Priabonian


Jerzy A. Lis; Barbara Lis; Ernst Heiss (2018). "Chilamnestocoris mixtus gen. et spec. nov., the first burrower bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea: Cydnidae) in Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber". Cretaceous Research. 91: 257–262. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.06.017.
"Cydnidae". Discover Life. Retrieved 2007-03-09.
Dolling, W. R. (1981). "A rationalized classification of the burrower bugs (Cydnidae)". Systematic Entomology. 6 (1): 61–76. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1981.tb00016.x. S2CID 84097067.
Yao, Yunzhi; Ren, Dong; Rider, David A.; Cai, Wanzhi (2012). "Phylogeny of the Infraorder Pentatomomorpha Based on Fossil and Extant Morphology, with Description of a New Fossil Family from China". PLOS ONE. 7 (5): e37289. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037289. PMC 3360028. PMID 22655038.

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