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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Antliophora
Ordo: Mecoptera

Genera (9): CerapanorpaDicerapanorpaFurcatopanorpaLeptopanorpaMegapanorpa – Neopanorpa – Panorpa – Sinopanorpa – †Austropanorpa – †Baltipanorpa


Ding, H. et al. 2014: The earliest fossil record of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) from the Middle Jurassic of China. ZooKeys, 431: 79–92. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.431.7561 Reference page.
Gao, C., Ma, N. & Hua, B-Z. 2016. Cerapanorpa, a new genus of Panorpidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) with descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 4158(1): 93–104. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4158.1.5. Reference page. .
Ma, N.; Hua, B-z. 2011: Furcatopanorpa, a new genus of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) from China. Journal of natural history, 45 (35-36): 2251–2261. DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2011.595517

Vernacular names
eesti: Koonlased
polski: Wojsiłkowate
русский: Настоящие скорпионницы
中文: 蝎蛉科

The Panorpidae are a family of scorpionflies containing more than 480 species. The family is the largest family in Mecoptera, covering approximately 70% species of the order.[1] Species range between 9–25 mm long.[2]

These insects have four membranous wings and threadlike antennae. Their elongated faces terminate with mouthparts that are used to feed on dead and dying insects, nectar, and rotting fruit. While in larval form, they scavenge by consuming dead insects on the ground.[3]


Aulops Enderlein, 1910 (two species)
Cerapanorpa Gao, Ma & Hua, 2016 (22 species)
Dicerapanorpa Zhong & Hua, 2013 (eight species)
Furcatopanorpa Ma & Hua, 2011 (one species)
Leptopanorpa MacLachlan, 1875 (12 species)
Neopanorpa Weele, 1909 (ca. 170 species)
Panorpa Linnaeus, 1758 (ca. 260 species)
Sinopanorpa Cai & Hua in Cai, Huang & Hua, 2008 (three species)

Extinct genera

†Baltipanorpa Krzemiński & Soszyńska-Maj, 2012[4] Baltic amber, Eocene

Fossil record

The oldest known species was previously suggested to be Jurassipanorpa from the Jiulongshan Formation of Inner Mongolia, China.[5] However, this was later considered an incorrect attribution, making the oldest known records of the family currently from the Eocene, including the extinct genus Baltipanorpa as well as the living genus Panorpa.[6]

Hu, Gui-Lin; Yan, Gang; Xu, Hao; Hua, Bao-Zhen (2015). "Molecular phylogeny of Panorpidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 85: 22–31. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.01.009. PMID 25683048.
"Family Panorpidae - Common Scorpionflies - BugGuide.Net". Retrieved 2016-06-05.
"Joshua R. Jones Research Panorpidae". Archived from the original on 2016-04-11. Retrieved 2016-06-05.
Krzemiński, Wiesław; Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka (January 2012). "A new genus and species of scorpionfly (Mecoptera) from Baltic amber, with an unusually developed postnotal organ". Systematic Entomology. 37 (1): 223–228. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2011.00602.x.
Ding, He; Shih, ChungKun; Bashkuev, Alexey; Zhao, Yunyun; Dong, Ren (2014). "The earliest fossil record of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) from the Middle Jurassic of China". ZooKeys (431): 79–92. doi:10.3897/zookeys.431.7561. PMC 4141175. PMID 25152669.
Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka; Krzemiński, Wiesław; Kopeć, Katarzyna; Cao, Yizi; Ren, Dong (2020-09-13). "New Middle Jurassic fossils shed light on the relationship of recent Panorpoidea (Insecta, Mecoptera)". Historical Biology. 32 (8): 1081–1097. doi:10.1080/08912963.2018.1564747. ISSN 0891-2963. "However, preliminary revision of the holotype of Jurassipanorpa impunctata Ding, Shih & Ren, 2014, as well as additional new materials, shows that the species is not a member of the Panorpidae (Soszyńska-Maj et al. in prep.)."

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