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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Psittaciformes

Familia: Psittacidae
Subfamilia: Arinae
Tribus: Arini
Genera: AnodorhynchusAraAratingaBolborhynchusBrotogerisCyanoliseusCyanopsittaDeroptyusDiopsittacaEnicognathusEupsittulaForpusGuarubaHapalopsittacaLeptosittacaMyiopsittaNannopsittacaOgnorhynchusOrthopsittacaPionitesPrimoliusPropyrrhuraPsilopsiagonPsittacaraPyrrhuraRhynchopsittaThectocercusTouit

Genera extincta: †Conuropsis

Arini G.R. Gray, 1840

Typus: Ara Lacépède, 1799

Primary references

Gray, G.R. 1840. A list of the genera of birds, with an indication of the typical species of each genus, compiled from various sources. 80 pp. Richard and John Taylor (London). p. 51 as Arainae BHL DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.13777 Reference page.

Additional references

Joseph, L., Toon, A., Schirtzinger, E.E., Wright, T.F. & Schodde, R. 2012. A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes). Zootaxa 3205: 26–40 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3205.1.2 Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Schodde, R., Remsen Jr., J.V., Schirtzinger, E.E., Joseph, L. & Wright, T.F. 2013. Higher classification of New World parrots (Psittaciformes; Arinae), with diagnoses of tribes. Zootaxa 3691(5): 591–596. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3691.5.5 Full article (PDF) Reference page.

The Arini tribe of the neotropical parrots is a monophyletic clade of macaws and parakeets (commonly called conures in aviculture) characterized by colorful plumage and long, tapering tails. They occur throughout Mexico, Central America, and South America, and formerly the Caribbean and North America. One genus and several species are extinct; another genus is extinct in the wild. Two species are known only through subfossil remains. About a dozen hypothetical extinct species (see Extinct Caribbean macaws) have been described, native to the Caribbean area.[1][2] Among the Arini are some of the rarest birds in the world, such as Spix's macaw, which is extinct in the wild – fewer than 100 specimens survive in captivity. It also contains the largest flighted parrot in the world, the hyacinth macaw. Some species, such as the blue-and-yellow macaw and sun conure are popular pet parrots.

Molecular studies have dated the divergence of the Arini tribe from the ancestral neotropical parrots to late in the Paleogene period about 30–35 million years ago.

The Arini are one of three recognized clades in subfamily Arinae of neotropical parrots in the family Psittacidae of Afrotropical and neotropical parrots, one of three families of true parrots.

Image Genus Living Species
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus -zoo de La Palmyre-8a.jpg Anodorhynchus Spix, 1824
  • Hyacinth macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus
  • Lear's macaw, Anodorhynchus leari
  • Glaucous macaw, Anodorhynchus glaucus (possibly extinct)
Cyanopsitta spixii -Vogelpark Walsrode, Walsrode, Germany-1980.jpg Cyanopsitta Bonaparte, 1854
  • Spix's macaw, Cyanopsitta spixii (extinct in the wild)
Ara chloropterus -Manati Park -Dominican Republic-8a.jpg Ara Lacépède, 1799
  • Blue-and-yellow macaw, Ara ararauna
  • Blue-throated macaw, Ara glaucogularis
  • Military macaw, Ara militaris
  • Great green macaw, Ara ambiguus
  • Scarlet macaw, Ara macao
  • Red-and-green (green-winged) macaw, Ara chloroptera
  • Cuban red macaw, Ara tricolor (extinct)
  • Red-fronted macaw, Ara rubrogenys
  • Chestnut-fronted macaw, Ara severa
  • Saint Croix macaw, Ara autocthones (extinct)
Ara-rudobřichý.jpg Orthopsittaca Ridgway, 1912
  • Red-bellied macaw, Orthopsittaca manilatus
Blue-headed Macaw RWD2.jpg Primolius Bonaparte, 1857
  • Blue-headed macaw, Primolius couloni
  • Blue-winged macaw, Primolius maracana
  • Golden-collared macaw, Primolius auricollis
Parrot-Canaima-Venezuela04.JPG Diopsittaca Ridgway, 1912
  • Red-shouldered macaw, Diopsittaca nobilis
Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha -captive-8a-4c.jpg Rhynchopsitta Bonaparte, 1854
  • Thick-billed parrot, Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha
  • Maroon-fronted parrot, Rhynchopsitta terrisi
  • Rhynchopsitta phillipsi (extinct)
Ognorhynchus icterotis -Colombia-8.jpg Ognorhynchus Bonaparte, 1857
  • Yellow-eared parrot, Ognorhynchus icterotis
Guaruba BiahBkw.jpg Guaruba Lesson, 1830
  • Golden parakeet, Guaruba guarouba
Leptosittaca branickii -Tapichalaca Reserve-8.jpg Leptosittaca Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894
  • Golden-plumed parakeet, Leptosittaca branickii
Karolinasittich 01.jpg Conuropsis† Salvadori, 1891
  • Carolina parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis (extinct)
  • Conuropsis fratercula (extinct, proposed genus Conuropsis contested, known from subfossil remains)
Aratinga -San Francisco -feral parrot-8.jpg Psittacara Vigors, 1825
  • Green parakeet, Psittacara holochlorus
  • Pacific parakeet, Psittacara strenuus
  • Socorro parakeet, Psittacara brevipes
  • Red-throated parakeet, Psittacara rubritorquis
  • Scarlet-fronted parakeet, Psittacara wagleri
  • Cordilleran parakeet, Psittacara frontatus
  • Mitred parakeet, Psittacara mitratus
  • Red-masked parakeet, Psittacara erythrogenys
  • Finsch's parakeet, Psittacara finschi
  • White-eyed parakeet, Psittacara leucophthalmus
  • Cuban parakeet, Psittacara euops
  • Hispaniolan parakeet, Psittacara chloroptera
  • Puerto Rican parakeet, Psittacara maugei (extinct)
Aratinga solstitialis -Singapore BirdPark-6.jpg Aratinga Spix, 1824
  • Sun parakeet, Aratinga solstitialis
  • Sulphur-breasted parakeet, Aratinga maculata
  • Jandaya parakeet, Aratinga jandaya
  • Golden-capped parakeet, Aratinga auricapilla
  • Nanday parakeet, Aratinga nenday
  • Dusky-headed parakeet, Aratinga weddellii
Aratinga canicularis -Costa Rica-8-2c.JPG Eupsittula Bonaparte, 1853
  • Brown-throated parakeet, Eupsittula pertinax
  • Olive-throated parakeet, Eupsittula nana
  • Orange-fronted parakeet, Eupsittula canicularis
  • Peach-fronted parakeet, Eupsittula aurea
  • Cactus (Caatinga) parakeet, Eupsittula cactorum
Aratinga acuticaudata -San Isidro -Bolivia -eating-8.jpg Thectocercus Vieillot, 1818
  • Blue-crowned parakeet, Thectocercus acuticaudatus
Burrowing Parrot RWD1.jpg Cyanoliseus Bonaparte, 1854
  • Burrowing parakeet, Cyanoliseus patagonus
Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) -Sao Paulo.jpg Pyrrhura Bonaparte, 1856
  • Ochre-marked parakeet, Pyrrhura cruentata
    • Maroon-bellied parakeet, Pyrrhura frontalis
    • Blaze-winged parakeet, Pyrrhura devillei
    • Crimson-bellied parakeet, Pyrrhura perlata
    • Pearly parakeet, Pyrrhura lepida
    • Green-cheeked parakeet, Pyrrhura molinae
    • Painted parakeet, Pyrrhura picta
      • Sinú parakeet, Pyrrhura (picta) subandina (possibly extinct)
      • Todd's (Perijá) parakeet, Pyrrhura (picta) caeruleiceps
      • Azuero parakeet, Pyrrhura (picta) eisenmanni
    • Venezuelan parakeet, Pyrrhura emma
    • Santarém parakeet, Pyrrhura amazonum
      • Madeira parakeet, Pyrrhura (amazonum) snethlageae
    • Bonaparte's parakeet, Pyrrhura lucianii
    • Rose-fronted parakeet or red-crowned parakeet, Pyrrhura roseifrons
      • Wavy-breasted parakeet, Pyrrhura (roseifrons) peruviana
    • White-eared (maroon-faced) parakeet, Pyrrhura leucotis
    • Grey-breasted parakeet, Pyrrhura griseipectus
    • Pfrimer's parakeet, Pyrrhura pfrimeri
    • Fiery-shouldered parakeet, Pyrrhura egregia
    • Santa Marta parakeet, Pyrrhura viridicata
    • Maroon-tailed parakeet, Pyrrhura melanura
    • El Oro parakeet, Pyrrhura orcesi
    • Black-capped (rock) parakeet, Pyrrhura rupicola
    • White-necked parakeet, Pyrrhura albipectus
    • Flame-winged (brown-breasted) parakeet, Pyrrhura calliptera
    • Blood-eared parakeet, Pyrrhura hoematotis
    • Rose-headed (rose-crowned) parakeet, Pyrrhura rhodocephala
    • Sulphur-winged parakeet, Pyrrhura hoffmanni
Cachaña.jpg Enicognathus G.R. Gray, 1840
  • Austral parakeet, Enicognathus ferrugineus
  • Slender-billed parakeet, Enicognathus leptorhynchus

See also

List of parrots
List of macaws
List of Aratinga parakeets


"Mystery Macaws of the West Indies".
Turvey, S. T. (2010). "A new historical record of macaws on Jamaica". Archives of Natural History. 37 (2): 348–351. doi:10.3366/anh.2010.0016.

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