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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Thraupidae
Genus: Thraupis
Species: T. abbas T. cyanopteraT. episcopusT. glaucocolpa T. ornata T. palmarum - T. sayaca

acc. IOC 10.2.:

Species transferred to Rauenia: T. bonariensis – acc. Sedano & Burns (2010); SACC 437E

Species transferred to Sporathraupis: T. cyanocephala – acc. Burns Unitt & Mason (2016); SACC730.18

Thraupis F. Boie, 1826

Typus: Tanagra archiepiscopus Desmarest, 1805 = Tanagra ornata Sparrman, 1789 = Thraupis ornata


Thrapis [variation]

Primary references

Boie, F. 1826. Generalübersicht der ornithologischen Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen. Isis, oder Encyclopädische Zeitung von Oken. 19: 969–981. BHL Reference page. First availability col. 974 BHL

Additional references

Sedano, R.E. & Burns, K.J. 2010. Are the Northern Andes a species pump for Neotropical birds? Phylogenetics and biogeography of a clade of Neotropical tanagers (Aves: Thraupini). Journal of Biogeography 37: 325–343. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02200.x Paywall Reference page.
Burns, K.J., Shultz, A.J., Title, P.O., Mason N.A., Barker, F.K., Klicka, J., Lanyon, S.M. & Lovette, I.J. 2014. Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 75:41–77. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.006 Full article (PDF) Open accessReference page.
Burns, K.J., Unitt, P. & Mason, N.A. 2016. A genus-level classification of the family Thraupidae (Class Aves: Order Passeriformes). Zootaxa 4088(3): 329–354. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4088.3.2 Paywall.Reference page.

Vernacular names
español: Tangaras
suomi: Sinitangarat
português: Sanhaçus

Thraupis is a genus of birds of the tanager family occurring from Mexico to Argentina and Brazil. Some are familiar species with large ranges. In Brazil it's called Pipira-azul (pronn: peepeeră, æzoól) when it has a tone blue color, when it has green tone color is called "Pipira-verde" or "Pipira-Vierde" on mexico.

These tanagers are mainly found in semi-open habitats including plantations and open woodland, but some will venture into towns. They feed from medium to high levels in trees, taking mainly fruit, with some nectar, and insects which may be taken in flight. The pair builds a usually well concealed cup nest, but the female incubates alone. The blue-gray and palm tanagers will nest in buildings. Thraupis tanagers have squeaky call notes and songs which consist of 5-10 repetitions of a single or double note.
Taxonomy and species list

The genus was introduced by the German naturalist Friedrich Boie in 1826 with the golden-chevroned tanager as the type species.[1][2] The name of the genus is the Ancient Greek word for an unidentified small bird mentioned by Aristotle.[3]

The genus formerly included the blue-and-yellow tanager and the blue-capped tanager. These were moved to other genera based of the results of molecular phylogenetic studies.[4][5][6]

The genus contains seven species.[7]

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Thraupis-episcopus-001.jpg Thraupis episcopus Blue-grey tanager Mexico south to northeast Bolivia and northern Brazil, all of the Amazon Basin
Sayaca tanager.JPG Thraupis sayaca Sayaca tanager Brazil and Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and northeastern Argentina
Thraupis glaucocolpa.jpg Thraupis glaucocolpa Glaucous tanager Colombia and Venezuela
Thraupis cyanoptera -Morretes, Parana, Brazil-8.jpg Thraupis cyanoptera Azure-shouldered tanager Brazil
Tángara Ala Amarilla, Huauchinango Puebla, México (9244926638).jpg Thraupis abbas Yellow-winged tanager Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coasts from the states of Veracruz and the extreme south of San Luis Potosí in Mexico through the Yucatán Peninsula to Nicaragua, and on the Pacific coast from the Mexican state of Chiapas to Honduras
Thraupis ornata -Reserva Guainumbi, Sao Luis do Paraitinga, Sao Paulo, Brasil-8.jpg Thraupis ornata Golden-chevroned tanager Brazil
Palm tanager (Thraupis palmarum melanoptera).jpg Thraupis palmarum Palm tanager Nicaragua south to Bolivia, Paraguay and southern Brazil


Boie, Friedrich (1826). "Generalübersicht". Isis von Oken (in German). Col 974.
Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, ed. (1970). Check-list of Birds of the World. Vol. 13. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 318.
Jobling, J.A. (2018). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
Sedano, Raul E.; Burns, Kevin J. (2010). "Are the Northern Andes a species pump for Neotropical birds? Phylogenetics and biogeography of a clade of Neotropical tanagers (Aves: Thraupini)". Journal of Biogeography. 37 (2): 325–343. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02200.x.
Burns, K.J.; Shultz, A.J.; Title, P.O.; Mason, N.A.; Barker, F.K.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Lovette, I.J. (2014). "Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 75: 41–77. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.006.
Burns, K.J.; Unitt, P.; Mason, N.A. (2016). "A genus-level classification of the family Thraupidae (Class Aves: Order Passeriformes)". Zootaxa. 4088 (3): 329–354. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4088.3.2.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2018). "Tanagers and allies". World Bird List Version 8.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2 April 2018.

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