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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia

Superfamiliae (3): GracillarioideaTineoideaYponomeutoidea
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Superfamiliae (14): Alucitoidea – Carposinoidea – Choreutoidea – Cossoidea – Epermenioidea – Galacticoidea – Gelechioidea – Immoidea – Pterophoroidea – Schreckensteinioidea – Simaethistoidea – Tortricoidea – Urodoidea – Zygaenoidea
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamiliae (7): Calliduloidea – Hyblaeoidea – Mimallonoidea – Papilionoidea – Pyraloidea – Thyridoidea – Whalleyanoidea
Cladus: Macroheterocera
Superfamiliae (5) Bombycoidea – Drepanoidea – Geometroidea – Lasiocampoidea – Noctuoidea
Familiae incertae sedis (2): Douglasiidae – Prodidactidae
Familiae incertae sedis: Millieriidae


Ditrysia Börner, 1925.

Minet, J. 1991: Tentative reconstruction of the ditrysian phylogeny (Lepidoptera: Glossata). Entomologica scandinavica, 22(1): 69–96.
van Nieukerken, E.J., Kaila, L., Kitching, I.J., Kristensen, N.P., Lees, D.C., Minet, J., Mitter, C., Mutanen, M., Regier, J.C., Simonsen, T.J., Wahlberg, N., Yen, S-H., Zahiri, R., Adamski, D., Baixeras, J., Bartsch, D., Bengtsson, B.A., Brown, J.W., Bucheli, S.R., Davis, D.R., de Prins, J., de Prins, W., Epstein, M.C., Gentili-Poole, P., Gielis, C., Hättenschwiler, P., Hausmann, A., Holloway, J.D., Kallies, A., Karsholt, O., Kawahara, A.Y., Koster, S., Kozlov, M.V., Lafontaine, J.D., Lamas, G., Landry, J-F., Lee, S., Nuss, M., Park, K-T., Penz, C.M., Rota, J., Schintlmeister, A., Schmidt, B.C., Sohn, J-C., Solis, M.A., Tarmann, G.M., Warren, A.D., Weller, S., Yaklovlev, R.V., Zolotuhin, V.V. & Zwick, A. 2011. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. Pp 212–221 In:
Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011. Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 1–237. Open access. Reference page PDF. Reference page.
Heikkilä, M., Mutanen, M., Wahlberg, N., Sihvonen, P. & Kaila, L. 2015. Elusive ditrysian phylogeny: an account of combining systematized morphology with molecular data (Lepidoptera). BMC Evolutionary Biology 15:260. DOI: 10.1186/s12862-015-0520-0 Reference page.

Vernacular names
suomi: Aitoperhoset
magyar: kettős ivarnyílásúak
日本語: 二門亜目
中文: 雙孔部

The Ditrysia are a natural group or clade of insects in the lepidopteran order containing both butterflies and moths. They are so named because the female has two distinct sexual openings: one for mating, and the other for laying eggs (in contrast to the Monotrysia).

About 98% of described species of Lepidoptera belong to Ditrysia. As larvae, they initially feed on plants until they grow to become adults and feed on nectar. Distrysian lineage by the ones that live and cater from the host plant, or even the ones that live outside the plant constructing their own shelter.They function as herbivores, pollinators, and prey in terrestrial ecosystems, while also being extremely damaging to the development of agriculture.[1] The Lepidoptera group can be divided into the primitive but paraphyletic "micromoths" and the derived monophyletic Apoditrysia, which include mostly larger moths, as well as the butterflies. Those with a dorsal heart vessel belong in section Cossina.[2] Others, having a ventral heart vessel, belong in section Tineina.[3] While it is difficult to pinpoint the origin of affinities between clades, Tineodiea are found to be useful in understanding the vast diversity in Ditrysia. Obstecomera and Macrolepidoptera are another examples of Ditrysia's subclades. Apoditrysia, Obtectomera, and Macrolepidoptera will be considered monophyletic if one or more organisms are either included or excluded from the clade.[4]

See also

Taxonomy of Lepidoptera


Regier, Jerome C.; Zwick, Andreas; Cummings, Michael P.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Cho, Soowon; Weller, Susan; Roe, Amanda; Baixeras, Joaquin; Brown, John W.; Parr, Cynthia; Davis, Donald R. (2009-12-02). "Toward reconstructing the evolution of advanced moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia): an initial molecular study". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9 (1): 280. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-280. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 2796670. PMID 19954545.
Capinera J, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 657. ISBN 9781402062421.
"Tineina - Wiktionary". Retrieved 2021-02-17.

Mutanen M, Wahlberg N, Kaila L (September 2010). "Comprehensive gene and taxon coverage elucidates radiation patterns in moths and butterflies". Proceedings. Biological Sciences. 277 (1695): 2839–48. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.0392. PMC 2981981. PMID 20444718.

Further reading

Kristensen NP, Skalski AW (1999). "Phylogeny and paleontology". In Kristensen NP (ed.). Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology. Vol. IV. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter. pp. 7–25.
Regier JC, Mitter C, Davis DR, Harrison TL, Sohn JC, Cummings MP, Zwick A, Mitter KT (April 2015). "A molecular phylogeny and revised classification for the oldest ditrysian moth lineages (L epidoptera: T ineoidea), with implications for ancestral feeding habits of the mega‐diverse D itrysia". Systematic Entomology. 40 (2): 409–32. doi:10.1111/syen.12110. S2CID 85287782.

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