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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Elateriformia
Superfamilia: Byrrhoidea

Genera (33): Ahaggaria – Ceradryops – Drylichus – Dryops – Elmomorphus – Elmoparnus – Franzyops – Geoparnus – Ghiselinius – Guaranius – Helichus – Holcodryops – MomentumMonstrosostea – Onopelmus – Oreoparnus – Pachyparnus – ParahelichusParnida – Parygrus – Pedestrodryops – Pelonomus – Phallodryops – Pomatinus – Postelichus – Praehelichus – Quadryops – Rapnus – Sostea – Sosteamorphus – Spalacosostea – Stenomystax – Strina – Stygoparnus


Dryopidae Billberg, 1820

Parnidae Leach, 1817


Greń, C., Przewoźny, M., Szczepański, W.T. & Karpiński, L. 2016. Dryops renateae Greń & Przewoźny sp. n. from Tajikistan (Coleoptera: Dryopidae). Zootaxa 4103(2): 177–179. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4103.2.8. Reference page.
Kodada, J.; Jäch, M.A. 2005: 18.3. Dryopidae Bilberg, 1820 (1817). Pp. 496-508 in: Beutel, R.G. & Leschen, R.A.B. (volume eds.) Coleoptera, beetles. Volume 1: Morphology and systematics (Archostemata, Adephaga, Myxophaga, Polyphaga partim). In: Kristensen, N.P. & Beutel, R.G. (eds.) Handbook of zoology. A natural history of the phyla of the animal kingdom. Volume IV. Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 38. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. DOI: 10.1515/9783110904550.469
I. Lobl, & A. Smetana, Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 3 ed. , Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark, 2006 ISBN 87-88757-59-5, p.440
Majka, C.G. 2008: The aquatic Coleoptera of Prince Edward Island, Canada: new records and faunal composition. ZooKeys 2: 239–260. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.2.25 Reference page.
Mascagni, A., Jäch, M.A., Ostovan, H. & Ghahari, H. 2016. Annotated checklist of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran. Zootaxa 4144(3): 354–364. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4144.3.4. Reference page.



Vernacular names
Deutsch: Hakenkäfer
English: Long-toed Water Beetle
lietuvių: Kabliavabaliai
Nederlands: Ruighaarkevers
norsk: Mudderbiller
русский: Прицепыши / Большекоготники

Dryopidae is a family of beetles, commonly named long-toed water beetles, in the superfamily Byrrhoidea. It was described by Gustaf Johan Billberg in 1820.[1][2]


Long-toed water beetles are named for their extended claws. Adults have dense hairs, which allow the beetles to breathe while underwater. The flight muscles of the females weaken as they age.[3]

When the pupae complete the imago stage of their life cycle, they move towards running water, and may be attracted to lights.[3]

Despite being referred to as aquatic insects, the beetles are unable to swim,[2] clinging to detritus that float. All long-toed water beetles feed on plants that are in the water, but the larvae also prey on small animals and most of them are terrestrial. Stygoparnus is the only genus in the family in which both the larvae and adults are aquatic.[2][3][4]

Genera of the family closely resemble riffle beetles, but the antennae are different from the long-toed water beetles, looking similar to clubs.[5]

Members of this family are found on every continent, except Antarctica and Australia, being more common in the tropics.[6] In 2005, a possible fossilized specimen of Dryopidae was found in the Crato Formation by entomologists David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel.[4]

Beetles that have water as a habitat, including long-toed water beetles, can help show the quality of fresh water.[7]

Essay questions about the long-toed water beetles were placed in a teacher's manual about insects, written by entomologist Matthew Cooke and published in 1884.[8]

Ahaggaria Bollow, 1938
Ceradryops Hinton, 1937
Drylichus Heller, 1916
Dryops Olivier, 1791
Elmomorphus Sharp, 1888
Elmoparnus Sharp, 1882
Geoparnus Besuchet, 1978
Guaranius Spangler, 1991
Helichus Erichson, 1847
Holcodryops Spangler, 1987
Malaiseianus Bollow, 1940
Onopelmus Spangler, 1980
Oreoparvus Delève, 1965
Pelonomus Erichson, 1847
Phallodryops Delève, 1963[9]
Postelichus Nelson, 1989
Protoparnus Sharp, 1883
Pseudopelonomus Brown, 1981
Quadryops Perkins & Spangler, 1985
Rapnus Grouvelle, 1899
Sostea Pascoe, 1860
Sosteamorphus Hinton, 1936
Strina Redtenbacher, 1867
Stygoparnus Barr & Spangler, 1992
Uenodryops Satô, 1981
Palaeoriohelmis Bollow, 1940
Potamophilites Haupt, 1956


"Dryopidae Billberg, 1820". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
Tory Peterson, Roger (1998). The Beetles of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 163. ISBN 9780395910894. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
V. Evans, Arthur; N. Hogue, James (2006). Field Guide to Beetles of California. University of California Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 9780520246553. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
M. Martill, David; Bechly, Günter; F. Loveridge, Robert (2007). The Crato Fossil Beds of Brazil. Cambridge University Press. p. 345. ISBN 9781139467766. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
Watson-Ferguson, Kami; Han, Cindy; McGarvey, Jason; Miller, Leah (2006). A Guide to Aquatic Insects and Crustaceans. Stackpole Books. p. 30. ISBN 9780811732451. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
H. Arnett, Ross; C. Thomas, Michael; E. Skelley, Paul; Howard, Frank (2010). American Beetles, Volume II. CRC Press. p. 122. ISBN 9781420041231. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
R. Spellman, Frank (2008). Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 496. ISBN 9781420075311. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
Cooke, Matthew (1884). Teachers' Manual, Or, the Best Method of Teaching the Natural History of Injurious and Beneficial Insects. H.S. Crocker. p. 52. Retrieved July 21, 2013. "long-toed water beetles."
France, Société Entomologique de (2004). "Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France - Google Livros". Retrieved 2015-01-08.

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